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Adzerikho I.E.,Belarusian Medical Academy of Post Graduate Education | Mrochek A.G.,Republican Scientific and Practical Center Cardiology | Minchenya V.T.,Scientific and Technological Park of the BNTU | Dmitriev V.V.,Belarusian Research Center for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology | Kulak A.I.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology

To prevent a distal embolization in the course of ultrasound (US) angioplasty, we combined US thrombus disruption in peripheral artery in vivo with simultaneous administration of streptokinase (SK). Acute thrombosis was induced in the femoral arteries of 23 dogs. Two hours after thrombus formation, thrombus destruction was performed using US (36 kHz) and by a combined US+SK (75,000 U/kg) administration. The results showed that thrombi were disrupted completely by 1.5 ± 0.5 min US. A combined US+SK action resulted in activation of fibrinolysis, as indicated by the increase in the content of fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products and D-dimers by a factor of 1.5-2.0 after 120 min from start of treatment compared with the SK lysis. The duration of clot destruction did not change; the distal embolization was not indicated; platelet aggregation activity dropped after thrombus destruction. In summary, intravascular thrombus destruction by a combined US and SK action in vivo is accompanied by enhancing the enzymatic fibrinolysis and lowering the platelet aggregation activity that assists in preventing the distal embolization of the resulting clot debris. © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Source

Leifeld L.,Evangelisches Krankenhaus Kalk | Pfutzer R.,Evangelisches Krankenhaus Kalk | Morgenstern J.,Evangelisches Krankenhaus Kalk | Gibson P.R.,Monash University | And 4 more authors.
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Background Different oral formulations of 'mesalazine (mesalamine)' may have different efficacy in distal ulcerative colitis. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of mesalazine granules (Salofalk granules) vs. mesalazine tablets (Salofalk tablets) as induction therapy in patients with distinct extensions of ulcerative colitis. Methods A pooled analysis of 705 patients from four prospective, randomised, double-blind phase III trials was performed. The efficacy of 8 weeks' induction with 3 g/day mesalazine granules [3 g once daily (o.d.) or 1 g three times daily (t.d.s)] vs. 3 g/day mesalazine tablets (1 g t.d.s.) was compared in terms of clinical remission (CR: CAI ≤ 4) and endoscopic remission (ER: EI ≤ 3) (both according to Rachmilewitz) in subgroups with pancolitis, left-sided colitis, or proctosigmoiditis. Results Mesalazine granules were equipotent to mesalazine tablets in pancolitis regarding CR (72% vs. 71%, P = 0.909) and ER (58% vs. 49%, P = 0.338). In left-sided colitis, both mesalazine formulations were equipotent regarding CR (66% vs. 67%; P = 0.843) but mesalazine granules were superior regarding ER (56% vs. 37%; P = 0.025). In proctosigmoiditis, mesalazine granules were significantly more effective than mesalazine tablets regarding CR (78% vs. 55%P < 0.001) and ER (67% vs. 43%P < 0.001). Furthermore, o.d. application of mesalazine granules was more effective than t.d.s. dosing in left-sided colitis (CR 73% vs. 62%, P = 0.181; ER 71% vs. 48%P = 0.005) and proctosigmoiditis (CR 86% vs. 73%, P = 0.020; ER 75% vs. 61%, P = 0.021), but not in pancolitis. Conclusion This pooled analysis supports the hypothesis that mesalazine granules are superior to mesalazine tablets in induction of remission in distal colitis and should be taken once daily. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Ostroumova E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Rozhko A.,The Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology | Hatch M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Furukawa K.,Radiation Effects Research Foundation | And 13 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives

Background: Thyroid dysfunction after exposure to low or moderate doses of radioactive iodine-131 (131I) at a young age is a public health concern. However, quantitative data are sparse concerning 131I-related risk of these common diseases. Objective: Our goal was to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in association with 131I exposure during childhood (≤ 18 years) due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (ATPO) in relation to measurement-based 131I dose estimates in a Belarusian cohort of 10,827 individuals screened for various thyroid diseases. Results: Mean age at exposure (± SD) was 8.2 ± 5.0 years. Mean (median) estimated 131I thyroid dose was 0.54 (0.23) Gy (range, 0.001-26.6 Gy). We found significant positive associations of 131I dose with hypothyroidism (mainly subclinical and antibody-negative) and serum TSH concentration. The excess odds ratio per 1 Gy for hypothyroidism was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.62) and varied significantly by age at exposure and at examination, presence of goiter, and urban/rural residency. We found no evidence of positive associations with antibody-positive hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, AIT, or elevated ATPO. Conclusions: The association between 131I dose and hypothyroidism in the Belarusian cohort is consistent with that previously reported for a Ukrainian cohort and strengthens evidence of the effect of environmental 131I exposure during childhood on hypothyroidism, but not other thyroid outcomes. Source

Khrutchinsky A.,Institute for Nuclear Problems | Drozdovitch V.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Kutsen S.,Institute for Nuclear Problems | Minenko V.,Belarusian Medical Academy of Post Graduate Education | And 4 more authors.
Applied Radiation and Isotopes

This paper presents results of Monte Carlo modeling of the SRP-68-01 survey meter used to measure exposure rates near the thyroid glands of persons exposed to radioactivity following the Chernobyl accident. This device was not designed to measure radioactivity in humans. To estimate the uncertainty associated with the measurement results, a mathematical model of the SRP-68-01 survey meter was developed and verified. A Monte Carlo method of numerical simulation of radiation transport has been used to calculate the calibration factor for the device and evaluate its uncertainty. The SRP-68-01 survey meter scale coefficient, an important characteristic of the device, was also estimated in this study. The calibration factors of the survey meter were calculated for 131I, 132I, 133I, and 135I content in the thyroid gland for six age groups of population: newborns; children aged 1yr, 5yr, 10yr, 15yr; and adults. A realistic scenario of direct thyroid measurements with an "extended" neck was used to calculate the calibration factors for newborns and one-year-olds. Uncertainties in the device calibration factors due to variability of the device scale coefficient, variability in thyroid mass and statistical uncertainty of Monte Carlo method were evaluated. Relative uncertainties in the calibration factor estimates were found to be from 0.06 for children aged 1yr to 0.1 for 10-yr and 15-yr children. The positioning errors of the detector during measurements deviate mainly in one direction from the estimated calibration factors. Deviations of the device position from the proper geometry of measurements were found to lead to overestimation of the calibration factor by up to 24 percent for adults and up to 60 percent for 1-yr children. The results of this study improve the estimates of 131I thyroidal content and, consequently, thyroid dose estimates that are derived from direct thyroid measurements performed in Belarus shortly after the Chernobyl accident. © 2012. Source

Reiners C.,University of Wurzburg | Biko J.,University of Wurzburg | Haenscheid H.,University of Wurzburg | Hebestreit H.,University of Wurzburg | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

Context: After severe reactor emergencies with release of radioactive iodine, elevated thyroid cancer risk in children and adolescents is considered the main health consequence for the population exposed. Design: We studied thyroid cancer outcome after 11.3 years' median follow-up in a selected, very high-risk cohort, 234 Chernobyl-exposed Belarusian children and adolescents undergoing post-surgical radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Germany. Interventions: Cumulatively 100 children with or (without; n = 134) distant metastasis received a median 4 (2) RITs and 16.9 (6.6) GBq, corresponding to 368 (141) MBq/kg iodine-131. Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes were response to therapy and disease status, mortality, and treatment toxicity. Results: Of 229 patients evaluable for outcome, 147 (64.2%) attained complete remission [negative iodine-131 whole-body scan and TSH-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) < 1 μg /L], 69 (30.1%) showed nearly complete remission (complete response, except stimulated Tg 1-10 μg/L), and 11 (4.8%) had partial remission (Tg >10 μg/L, decrease from baseline in radioiodine uptake intensity in ≥ 1 focus, in tumor volume or in Tg). Except for 2 recurrences (0.9%) after partial remission, no recurrences, progression, or disease-specific mortality were noted. One patient died of lung fibrosis 17.5 years after therapy, 2 of apparently thyroid cancer-unrelated causes. The only RIT side effect observed was pulmonary fibrosis in 5 of 69 patients (7.2%) with disseminated lung metastases undergoing intensive pulmonary surveillance. Conclusions: Experience of a large, very high-risk pediatric cohort with radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma suggests that even when such disease is advanced and initially suboptimally treated, response to subsequent RIT and final outcomes are mostly favorable. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society. Source

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