Bejo Zaden BV

Warmenhuizen, Netherlands

Bejo Zaden BV

Warmenhuizen, Netherlands
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Aflitos S.,Plant Research International | Aflitos S.,Wageningen University | Schijlen E.,Plant Research International | De Jong H.,Wageningen University | And 55 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2014

We explored genetic variation by sequencing a selection of 84 tomato accessions and related wild species representative of the Lycopersicon, Arcanum, Eriopersicon and Neolycopersicon groups, which has yielded a huge amount of precious data on sequence diversity in the tomato clade. Three new reference genomes were reconstructed to support our comparative genome analyses. Comparative sequence alignment revealed group-, species- and accession-specific polymorphisms, explaining characteristic fruit traits and growth habits in the various cultivars. Using gene models from the annotated Heinz 1706 reference genome, we observed differences in the ratio between non-synonymous and synonymous SNPs (dN/dS) in fruit diversification and plant growth genes compared to a random set of genes, indicating positive selection and differences in selection pressure between crop accessions and wild species. In wild species, the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exceeds 10 million, i.e. 20-fold higher than found in most of the crop accessions, indicating dramatic genetic erosion of crop and heirloom tomatoes. In addition, the highest levels of heterozygosity were found for allogamous self-incompatible wild species, while facultative and autogamous self-compatible species display a lower heterozygosity level. Using whole-genome SNP information for maximum-likelihood analysis, we achieved complete tree resolution, whereas maximum-likelihood trees based on SNPs from ten fruit and growth genes show incomplete resolution for the crop accessions, partly due to the effect of heterozygous SNPs. Finally, results suggest that phylogenetic relationships are correlated with habitat, indicating the occurrence of geographical races within these groups, which is of practical importance for Solanum genome evolution studies. © 2014 The Authors.


Irwin J.A.,John Innes Center | Soumpourou E.,John Innes Center | Lister C.,John Innes Center | Ligthart J.-D.,Bejo Zaden B.V. | And 2 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2016

Variation in flowering time and response to overwintering has been exploited to breed brassica vegetables that can be harvested year-round. Our knowledge of flowering time control now enables the investigation of the molecular basis of this important variation. Here, we show that a major determinant of heading date variation in Brassica oleracea is from variation in vernalization response through allelic variation at FLOWERING LOCUS C.C2 (BoFLC4). We characterize two alleles of BoFLC.C2 that are both functional and confer a requirement for vernalization, but they show distinct expression dynamics in response to cold. Complementation experiments in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that the allelic variation results from cis polymorphism at BoFLC.C2, which quantitatively influences the degree of cold-induced epigenetic silencing. This results in one allelic variant conferring consistently later heading under both glasshouse and field conditions through reduced environmental sensitivity. Our results suggest that breeding of brassica varieties for commercially valuable variation in heading date has been achieved through the selection of cis polymorphism at FLC, similar to that underpinning natural variation in A. thaliana. This understanding will allow for the selection of alleles with distinct sensitivities to cold and robust heading dates under variable climatic conditions, and will facilitate the breeding of varieties more resistant to climate change. © 2016 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Jonkers W.,Bejo Zaden BV | Starr T.L.,University of California at Berkeley | Starr T.L.,DuPont Company | Louise Glass N.,University of California at Berkeley
Genetics | Year: 2016

In filamentous fungi, communication is essential for the formation of an interconnected, multinucleate, syncytial network, which is constructed via hyphal fusion or fusion of germinated asexual spores (germlings). Anastomosis in filamentous fungi is comparable to other somatic cell fusion events resulting in syncytia, including myoblast fusion during muscle differentiation, macrophage fusion, and fusion of trophoblasts during placental development. In Neurospora crassa, fusion of genetically identical germlings is a highly dynamic and regulated process that requires components of a MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. The kinase pathway components (NRC-1, MEK-2 and MAK-2) and the scaffold protein HAM-5 are recruited to hyphae and germling tips undergoing chemotropic interactions. The MAK-2/HAM-5 protein complex shows dynamic oscillation to hyphae/germling tips during chemotropic interactions, and which is out-of-phase to the dynamic localization of SOFT, which is a scaffold protein for components of the cell wall integrity MAP kinase pathway. In this study, we functionally characterize HAM-5 by generating ham-5 truncation constructs and show that the N-terminal half of HAM-5 was essential for function. This region is required for MAK-2 and MEK-2 interaction and for correct cellular localization of HAM-5 to “fusion puncta.” The localization of HAM-5 to puncta was not perturbed in 21 different fusion mutants, nor did these puncta colocalize with components of the secretory pathway. We also identified HAM-14 as a novel member of the HAM-5/MAK-2 pathway by mining MAK-2 phosphoproteomics data. HAM-14 was essential for germling fusion, but not for hyphal fusion. Colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation data indicate that HAM-14 interacts with MAK-2 and MEK-2 and may be involved in recruiting MAK-2 (and MEK-2) to complexes containing HAM-5. © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.


PubMed | John Innes Center, Bejo Zaden B.V. and Elsoms Seeds Ltd
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology | Year: 2016

Variation in flowering time and response to overwintering has been exploited to breed brassica vegetables that can be harvested year-round. Our knowledge of flowering time control now enables the investigation of the molecular basis of this important variation. Here, we show that a major determinant of heading date variation in Brassica oleracea is from variation in vernalization response through allelic variation at FLOWERING LOCUSC.C2 (BoFLC4). We characterize two alleles of BoFLC.C2 that are both functional and confer a requirement for vernalization, but they show distinct expression dynamics in response to cold. Complementation experiments in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that the allelic variation results from cis polymorphism at BoFLC.C2, which quantitatively influences the degree of cold-induced epigenetic silencing. This results in one allelic variant conferring consistently later heading under both glasshouse and field conditions through reduced environmental sensitivity. Our results suggest that breeding of brassica varieties for commercially valuable variation in heading date has been achieved through the selection of cis polymorphism at FLC, similar to that underpinning natural variation in A.thaliana. This understanding will allow for the selection of alleles with distinct sensitivities to cold and robust heading dates under variable climatic conditions, and will facilitate the breeding of varieties more resistant to climate change.


Oliva R.F.,International Potato Center | Oliva R.F.,Norwich Research Park | Kroon L.P.N.M.,Plant Research International | Kroon L.P.N.M.,Bejo Zaden BV | And 5 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

A blight disease on fruits and foliage of wild and cultivated Solanum spp. was found to be associated with a new species of Phytophthora. The proposed novel species is named Phytophthora andina Adler & Flier, sp. nov. based on morphological characteristics, pathogenicity assays, mitochondrial DNA haplotyping, AFLP fingerprinting and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence analyses. Isolates of P. andina (n = 48) from the Andean highland tropics of Ecuador were collected from 1995 to 2006. Phytophothora andina is closely related to P. infestans and has semipapillate, ellipsoidal sporangia borne on sympodially branched sporangiophores. It is heterothallic and produces amphigynous antheridia. The species consists of several clonal lineages, including the EC-2 and EC-3 RFLP lineages, which were described previously as P. infestans. Approximately 75% of isolates react as compatibility type A2 when paired with an A1 compatibility type isolate of P. infestans. However, when A2 isolates from the Anarrhichomenum section of Solanum were paired in all combinations, viable oospores were obtained in several crosses, suggesting that there is a unique compatibility interaction in P. andina that is complementary to that described in P. infestans. Nuclear and mitochondrial sequence analysis supported the species designation of P. andina. This newly identified heterothallic pathogen shares a common ancestor with P. infestans and may have arisen from hybridization events with sister taxa in the Andes. Journal compilation © 2010 BSPP.


Kodde J.,Plant Research International B.V. | Buckley W.T.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | De Groot C.C.,Bejo Zaden BV. | Retiere M.,Plant Research International B.V. | And 2 more authors.
Seed Science Research | Year: 2012

The most common way to test seed quality is to use a simple and reliable but time- and space-consuming germination test. In this paper we present a fast and simple method to analyse cabbage seed deterioration by measuring ethanol production from partially imbibed seeds. The method uses a modified breath analyser and is simple compared to gas chromatographic or enzymatic procedures. A modified method using elevated temperatures (40°C instead of 20°C) shortened the assay time and improved its sensitivity. The analysis showed an inverse correlation between ethanol production and seed quality (e.g. the final percentages or speed of germination and the number of normal seedlings). The increase in ethanol production was observed when cabbage seeds were deteriorated by storage under ambient conditions or hot water treatments, both of which reduced the number of normal seedlings. Premature seeds produced more ethanol upon imbibition than mature seeds. Ethanol production occurred simultaneously with oxygen consumption, indicating that lack of oxygen is not the major trigger for ethanol production. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2011.


Kroon L.P.N.M.,Bejo Zaden B.V. | Brouwer H.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Brouwer H.,University Utrecht | De Cock A.W.A.M.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Govers F.,Wageningen University
Phytopathology | Year: 2012

Plant diseases caused by Phytophthora species will remain an ever increasing threat to agriculture and natural ecosystems. Phytophthora literally means plant destroyer, a name coined in the 19th century by Anton de Bary when he investigated the potato disease that set the stage for the Great Irish Famine. Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight, was the first species in a genus that at present has over 100 recognized members. In the last decade, the number of recognized Phytophthora species has nearly doubled and new species are added almost on a monthly basis. Here we present an overview of the 10 clades that are currently distinguished within the genus Phytophthora with special emphasis on new species that have been described since 1996 when Erwin and Ribeiro published the valuable monograph 'Phytophthora diseases worldwide' (35). © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.


Patent
Bejo Zaden B.V. | Date: 2013-08-14

The present invention relates to cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) Cichorium plants and especially to cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) green chicory plants; cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) radicchio rosso plants; cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) red leaved chicory plants, cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) Treviso plants, cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) white chicory plants, cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) sugar loaf plants, cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) Belgian endive plants, cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) witloof plants, cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) Catalogna plants, cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) C. intybus var. foliosum plants, cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) C. endivia plants and cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) C. intybus L. var. sativum plants. The present invention further relates to methods for identifying cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) Cichorium plants and mitochondrial nucleic acid sequences providing cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Cichorium plants.


The present invention relates to methods for providing cytoplasmic male sterile Petroselinum plants, cytoplasmic male sterile Petroselinum crispum plants and to seeds, cells, tissues and plant parts thereof. Specifically the present invention relates to a method for providing a cytoplasmic male sterile Petroselinum crispum plant comprising: (a) providing first protoplasts obtained from a plant selected from the group consisting of Daucus carota L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apium graveolens L., and Pastinaca sativa L., wherein the first protoplasts have a substantially inactivated nuclear genome and a substantially non-modified cytoplasm; (b) providing second protoplasts obtained from Petroselinum crispum wherein the second protoplasts have a substantially inactivated cytoplasm and a substantially non-modified nuclear genome; (c) fusing said first and second protoplasts; and (d) obtaining from the fusion product of said first and second protoplasts a cytoplasmic male sterile Petroselinum crispum plant.


PubMed | Bejo Zaden B.V.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Phytopathology | Year: 2012

Plant diseases caused by Phytophthora species will remain an ever increasing threat to agriculture and natural ecosystems. Phytophthora literally means plant destroyer, a name coined in the 19th century by Anton de Bary when he investigated the potato disease that set the stage for the Great Irish Famine. Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight, was the first species in a genus that at present has over 100 recognized members. In the last decade, the number of recognized Phytophthora species has nearly doubled and new species are added almost on a monthly basis. Here we present an overview of the 10 clades that are currently distinguished within the genus Phytophthora with special emphasis on new species that have been described since 1996 when Erwin and Ribeiro published the valuable monograph Phytophthora diseases worldwide (35).

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