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Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Oliva R.F.,International Potato Center | Oliva R.F.,Norwich Research Park | Kroon L.P.N.M.,Plant Research International | Kroon L.P.N.M.,Bejo Zaden BV | And 5 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

A blight disease on fruits and foliage of wild and cultivated Solanum spp. was found to be associated with a new species of Phytophthora. The proposed novel species is named Phytophthora andina Adler & Flier, sp. nov. based on morphological characteristics, pathogenicity assays, mitochondrial DNA haplotyping, AFLP fingerprinting and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence analyses. Isolates of P. andina (n = 48) from the Andean highland tropics of Ecuador were collected from 1995 to 2006. Phytophothora andina is closely related to P. infestans and has semipapillate, ellipsoidal sporangia borne on sympodially branched sporangiophores. It is heterothallic and produces amphigynous antheridia. The species consists of several clonal lineages, including the EC-2 and EC-3 RFLP lineages, which were described previously as P. infestans. Approximately 75% of isolates react as compatibility type A2 when paired with an A1 compatibility type isolate of P. infestans. However, when A2 isolates from the Anarrhichomenum section of Solanum were paired in all combinations, viable oospores were obtained in several crosses, suggesting that there is a unique compatibility interaction in P. andina that is complementary to that described in P. infestans. Nuclear and mitochondrial sequence analysis supported the species designation of P. andina. This newly identified heterothallic pathogen shares a common ancestor with P. infestans and may have arisen from hybridization events with sister taxa in the Andes. Journal compilation © 2010 BSPP.


Kroon L.P.N.M.,Bejo Zaden BV | Brouwer H.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Brouwer H.,University Utrecht | De Cock A.W.A.M.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Govers F.,Wageningen University
Phytopathology | Year: 2012

Plant diseases caused by Phytophthora species will remain an ever increasing threat to agriculture and natural ecosystems. Phytophthora literally means plant destroyer, a name coined in the 19th century by Anton de Bary when he investigated the potato disease that set the stage for the Great Irish Famine. Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight, was the first species in a genus that at present has over 100 recognized members. In the last decade, the number of recognized Phytophthora species has nearly doubled and new species are added almost on a monthly basis. Here we present an overview of the 10 clades that are currently distinguished within the genus Phytophthora with special emphasis on new species that have been described since 1996 when Erwin and Ribeiro published the valuable monograph 'Phytophthora diseases worldwide' (35). © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.


The present invention relates to methods for providing cytoplasmic male sterile


Kodde J.,Plant Research International B.V | Buckley W.T.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | De Groot C.C.,Bejo Zaden BV | Retiere M.,Plant Research International B.V | And 2 more authors.
Seed Science Research | Year: 2012

The most common way to test seed quality is to use a simple and reliable but time- and space-consuming germination test. In this paper we present a fast and simple method to analyse cabbage seed deterioration by measuring ethanol production from partially imbibed seeds. The method uses a modified breath analyser and is simple compared to gas chromatographic or enzymatic procedures. A modified method using elevated temperatures (40°C instead of 20°C) shortened the assay time and improved its sensitivity. The analysis showed an inverse correlation between ethanol production and seed quality (e.g. the final percentages or speed of germination and the number of normal seedlings). The increase in ethanol production was observed when cabbage seeds were deteriorated by storage under ambient conditions or hot water treatments, both of which reduced the number of normal seedlings. Premature seeds produced more ethanol upon imbibition than mature seeds. Ethanol production occurred simultaneously with oxygen consumption, indicating that lack of oxygen is not the major trigger for ethanol production. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2011.


Aflitos S.,Plant Research International | Aflitos S.,Wageningen University | Schijlen E.,Plant Research International | De Jong H.,Wageningen University | And 55 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2014

We explored genetic variation by sequencing a selection of 84 tomato accessions and related wild species representative of the Lycopersicon, Arcanum, Eriopersicon and Neolycopersicon groups, which has yielded a huge amount of precious data on sequence diversity in the tomato clade. Three new reference genomes were reconstructed to support our comparative genome analyses. Comparative sequence alignment revealed group-, species- and accession-specific polymorphisms, explaining characteristic fruit traits and growth habits in the various cultivars. Using gene models from the annotated Heinz 1706 reference genome, we observed differences in the ratio between non-synonymous and synonymous SNPs (dN/dS) in fruit diversification and plant growth genes compared to a random set of genes, indicating positive selection and differences in selection pressure between crop accessions and wild species. In wild species, the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exceeds 10 million, i.e. 20-fold higher than found in most of the crop accessions, indicating dramatic genetic erosion of crop and heirloom tomatoes. In addition, the highest levels of heterozygosity were found for allogamous self-incompatible wild species, while facultative and autogamous self-compatible species display a lower heterozygosity level. Using whole-genome SNP information for maximum-likelihood analysis, we achieved complete tree resolution, whereas maximum-likelihood trees based on SNPs from ten fruit and growth genes show incomplete resolution for the crop accessions, partly due to the effect of heterozygous SNPs. Finally, results suggest that phylogenetic relationships are correlated with habitat, indicating the occurrence of geographical races within these groups, which is of practical importance for Solanum genome evolution studies. © 2014 The Authors.

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