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Wang P.,Beijing Forestry University | Jia L.-M.,Beijing Forestry University | Wei S.-P.,Beijing Forestry University | Wang Q.-F.,Beijing Xishan Experimental Forest Farm
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2013

To explore the approaches to regulate its stand structure, spatial structure (including aggregation index, mingling, neighborhood comparison, and open degree) of typical forest stand in Xishan National Forest Park of Beijing was analyzed by using Voronoi diagram method. Results indicated that; 1) the average aggregation index of stand was 1.31.The individuals of tree displayed an uniform distribution pattern. 2) The average mingling of stand was 0.427. The degree of segregation among tree species was low and the spatial configuration was relatively simple. 3) The average neighborhood comparison based on DBH and tree height was 0.512 and 0.497, respectively. The differentiation of DBH and height was not significant, which indicated a middle level of competition. 4) The average open degree of stand was 0.320. Thus, the stand was relatively open and had adequate growing spaces. In conclusion, spatial structure of this recreational forest was basically reasonable. For the purpose of improving recreational value, stand spatial structure can be optimized through little thinning or adding native broadleaved trees. Source


Jin S.,Beijing Forestry University | Jin S.,Changzhi Medical College | Hu T.-H.,Administrative office of Helan Mountain Nature Reserve | Zhao C.-L.,Administrative office of Helan Mountain Nature Reserve | And 3 more authors.
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2010

This paper mainly studies the extinction risk and the classes of conservation priority of wild plants in Helan Mountain Nature Reserve in Ningxia of northwestern China, based on field investigation from 2006 to 2008, literature and specimen examination using quantitative methods. The degree of endangerment was evaluated quantificationally by 5 indices, i.e. distribution frequency of line-transect, distribution frequency of sample plot, existent abundance, distribution mode and exclusiveness. The results show that there were 14 endangered species, 28 vulnerable species, 55 near threatened species and 620 secure species in this nature reserve. We evaluated the order of priority for conservation of plant species using the comprehensive evaluation by endangerment index, genetic loss index and utility value index. Thus, in Helan Mountain Nature Reserve in Ningxia, we made certain that plant species of the first rank protection was 38, that of the second rank protection was 90, and the non-protection species was 590. Source


Fan Z.-J.,Beijing Forestry University | Dong D.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Zheng R.,Beijing Forestry University | Wang M.-Z.,Beijing Xishan Experimental Forest Farm | And 2 more authors.
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2013

During the period from April 2011 to April 2012, the bird community was surveyed at the Jingfu Temple in Beijing with fixed strip method for arborvitae ancient forest, deciduous broadleaved forest and mixed broad-conifer forest. A total of 65 species of birds, belonging to 8 orders and 27 families, were recorded, among which there were 28 species of permanent residents, 23 summer breeders, 5 winter visitors and 9 travelers, and 4 Class II protected wildlife of China; the avifauna was mainly composed of paratactic birds of 44 species (accounted for 67.69%), 9 oriental (accounted for 13.85%) and 12 widespread species(accounted for 18.46%). The dominant species were great tit (Parus major), black- billed magpie (Pica pica), aure-winged magpie (Cyanopica cyana), large-billed crow (Covus macrorhynchosw), and red-billed blue magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha). According to the survey results, the species, quantity, diversity index of birds had different changes, the species and quantity were the smallest, the diversity index and evenness index were the lowest, the dominance index was the highest in arborvitae ancient forest; the species and quantity were the largest, the diversity index was the highest in deciduous broadleaved forest; while the evenness index was the highest in mixed broad-conifer forest, reflecting the most uniform distribution and the most obvious advantage phenomenon of birds in arborvitae ancient forest. The bird functional food group had different composition in different forest types, 4 functional food groups in arborvitae ancient forest of the birds, 5 functional food groups in mixed broad-conifer forest, 6 functional food groups in deciduous broadleaved forest, reflecting the adaptability of different forest habitat for birds. Source


Zhu M.,Beijing Forestry University | Liu X.D.,Beijing Forestry University | Li X.H.,Beijing Forestry University | Han X.,Beijing Forestry University | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015

The study of forest fuel adjustment and control, and assessment of its impact, form the basis of fuel management, which is important for reduction of forest fires. Pinus tabulaeformis is a typical coniferous species in North China, and four 20m × 20m sample plots were established in a P. tabulaeformis forest. Using field investigations and measurements, the distribution of forest fuel in the stand was analyzed, suitable fuel management activities, including pruning and cutting of shrubs, were conducted, and the effect of fuel management on the understory biodiversity and the photosynthetic attributes of the dominant shrub species were studied, comparing treated and untreated stands. Four different fuel treatments were used: CK, control; P1, Cutting shrubs; P2, Pruning (below 3 m) and cutting shrubs; P3, Pruning (below 3.5 m) and cutting shrubs. The results showed that: (1) The distribution of the P. tabulaeformis fuel load was highest in the 0—3 m layer (an average of 1053.94 g/ m2), and included the most types of fuel. Fuel load decreased as height increased. (2) After the fuel treatments, the maximum net photosynthetic rate, light saturation point, light compensation point, and dark respiration rate of plants in the understory (the main species were Grewia biloba var. parviflora and Diospyros lotus) increased, while the apparent quantum efficiency was reduced. (3) The different fuel treatments altered the diversity of the understory community. Compared with the control stand, the species richness, species diversity, species dominance, and species evenness of the grass layer in the different fuel treatments increased. Thus, the diversity of the understory and physiological characteristics of the dominant species were affected by the forest fuel control measures. These findings provide a theoretical basis for the development of forest fuel treatments in the study area. © 2015, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved. Source


Dong D.Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Fan Z.J.,Beijing Forestry University | Li Z.X.J.,Beijing Forestry University | Chen Z.L.,Beijing Forestry University | And 4 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

This paper researched the interspecific associations between Parus major, which is a forest widespread species, and other four settlement pattern birds (resident, summer migrant, winter migrant and migratory bird) in Beijing Xishan based on the use of 2×2 contingency table, association (similarity) coefficients and fixed strip method. The causes of species-associations were analyzed by reviewing literatures on the nest-building behavior, the feeding behavior and niche characteristics. The method of bird community species-associations was established for the first time in this study. The results showed that: (1)Analyzing species-associations of bird communities was possible by using the method of field survey, combining qualitative data test and association (similarity) coefficients under day time scale and frequency of species-associations under monthly scale; The bird species-associations had dual properties of temporal and spatial scales, which not only illuminated the temporal-spatial structure characterizations but also reflected the dynamics of these birds communities. At the same time, bird species-associations depended on the plant communities of the habitat. (2) The result showed that the combination ofχ2 test, point correlation coefficient (PCC) and percentage co- ocurrence(PC) was an effective way to measure the associations under day time scale. However, because of seasonal dynamic characteristics of the residence, breeding, migration of birds, the bird species-associations had uncertainty. (3) Significant positive correlation was found in the overall correlation of all species from March to next January, except for August reflecting significant negative correlation under monthly scale. According to the monthly frequency of PCC, the bird communities in Beijing Xishan region were divided into three types: positive association groups, weak positive and negative association groups, negative association groups; With the reduction of species, the species pairs and the complicated degree of interspecific associations showed decreasing trend between the parus major and four settlement pattern birds (resident, summer migrant, winter migrant and migratory bird). The species-associations between parus major and resident: the pairs of parus major and Corvidae showed positive correlation; the pairs of parus major and Paridae showed that weak interspecific association with equipotent positive and negative frequency of PCC tend to form negative correlation; the pairs of parus major and morphological significant lagrer resident (ie, Phasianidae, Picidae etc) showed negative correlation. The species-associations between parus major and summer migrant: the pairs of parus major and Cuculus micropterus showed positive correlation; the pairs of parus major and Parus venustulus, parus major and Ficedula zanthopygia showed weak interspecific association with equipotent positive and negative frequency of PCC; The pairs of parus major and Phylloscopus proregulus, parus major and Phoenicurus auroreus showed negative correlation. The species- associations between parus major and winter migrant: the pairs of parus major and Prunella montanella showed weak interspecific association with equipotent positive and negative frequency of PCC; The pairs of parus major and Turdus naumanni, parus major and most of Emberizidae showed significant negative correlation. The species-associations between parus major and migratory bird: the pairs of parus major and Sylviidae showed that weak interspecific association with equipotent positive and negative frequency of PCC tend to form significant negative correlation. Source

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