Beijing Waterworks Group

Beijing, China

Beijing Waterworks Group

Beijing, China
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Liu Q.,Tsinghua University | Zhang L.-P.,Tsinghua University | Liu W.-J.,Tsinghua University | Nie X.-B.,Tsinghua University | And 2 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2010

In this study, the effects of disinfectant dosage, reaction time and the ratio of Cl2 to N of disinfectant on genotoxicity of effluent of ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) during chlorine or chloramine disinfection were investigated using umu-test. It was found that, the genotoxicity of effluent of O3-BAC before disinfection ranged from 20-70 ng/L, and it increased after disinfection by chlorine or chloramines. With the same reaction time(24 h), genotoxicity after chlorination(40-95 ng/L) was higher than that after chloramination(20-40 ng/L)under same initial dosage. For chlorination, with initial dosage increasing from 0 mg/L to 10 mg/L, genotoxicity increased firstly, and got the maximum value at about 0.5-1 mg/L dosage, then decreased and got the minimum value at about 3-5 mg/L dosage, and finally increased again. For chloramination, genotoxicity didn't change that much. With the dosage of 3 mg/L and reaction time increasing from 0 h to 72 h, no matter for chlorine or chloramines disinfection, genotoxicity of effluent of O3-BAC both increased firstly, and got the maximum value at about 2 h, then decreased and got the minimum value at about 18 h, and finally increased again, and genotoxicity after chlorine disinfection(83-120 ng/L)was higher than that after chloramines disinfection(20-62 ng/L)under same reaction time. Further more, effects of the different ratios of Cl2 to N of disinfectant on genotoxicity of effluent of O3-BAC were also studied. Results of this study demonstrate that under test conditions, chloramine disinfection is safer than chlorine disinfection in the aspect of genotoxicity for drinking water, and the changes of genotoxicity are different from those of total HAAs.


Bao L.,Henan Normal University | Bao L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Chen W.,Henan Normal University | Shen J.,Beijing Waterworks Group | And 4 more authors.
Harbin Gongye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology | Year: 2016

In order to evaluate the feasibility of the fast startup of Anammox process, a lab-scale Anammox baffled biofilm reactor was carried out in this study. The experimental conditions were maintained at temperature (30±2) ℃, DO 0.2-0.5 mg/L, pH 7.6-8.0, average ammonia nitrogen load at 0.12 kg/(m3·d) and nitrite nitrogen load at 0.18 kg/(m3·d), respectively. By taking continuous low strength influent, the start-up process was successfully achieved within 83 days. After the fast startup, the average concentration of effluent NH4 +-N, NO2 --N and TN were 1.5, 1 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, the average removal efficiencies of NH4 +-N, NO2 --N and TN reached 95%, 95% and 80%, respectively. The effluent could stably meet the first grade A standards of Urban Sewage Disposal Plant Contamination Integrated Discharge Standard of China (GB 18918-2002). Under the stable phase, the removal rate of NO2 --N in each compartment along the reactor gradually decreased, and the remove of NH4 +-N presented in some delay. © 2016, Harbin Institute of Technology. All right reserved.


Miao J.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Chen Y.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Yang X.J.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Liu Y.,Beijing Waterworks Group | And 4 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2014

Human health risks associated with drinking water chlorination disinfection have been identified, and the development of new disinfecting methods to minimize the risks with less energy and chemicals is the direction of water treatment industry. In this study, an electrochemical system was investigated for drinking water treatment in an undivided electrochemical reactor using Ti/RuO2-IrO2 anode and graphite felt cathode. The reactor configuration was designed in such a way that the angle of the electrodes was adjustable between 0° and 90°. It was found that the laboratory reactor (660 × 620 mm size) with electrodes positioned between 30° and 65° provided satisfactory results at a treatment capacity of 250 L/h water. A pilot plant test was conducted for treatment of Yellow River water using four laboratory-scale reactors in parallel, and the electrochemical treatment was compared with chemical disinfection using sodium hypochlorite, ozone, and potassium permanganate in the pilot plant facility. The results demonstrate that the electrochemical treatment is superior to chemical disinfection using sodium hypochlorite, ozone, and potassium permanganate in terms of removal of taste and odor and formation of disinfection byproducts. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.


Chu B.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Miao J.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Liu Y.,Beijing Waterworks Group | Zhao S.,Beijing Waterworks Group | And 2 more authors.
Beijing Huagong Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexueban)/Journal of Beijing University of Chemical Technology (Natural Science Edition) | Year: 2011

Benzoic acid degradation by the electro-Fenton method has been studied by fluorescence measurements and ultraviolet spectroscopy, in a novel electrolytic cell in which a graphite felt cathode was placed above a titanium-ruthenium/iridium anode, and the electrodes were tilted by 60° with respect to the electrolyzer base. This design favors electro-generation of H2O2 by extending the contact time between oxygen and the cathode, and hydroxyl radicals were generated in situ from H2O2 catalyzed by an appropriate amount of Fe2+ in acid solution. Optimum electro-degradation of benzoic acid was achieved with a current density of 3 mA/cm2, an initial pH of 3, and a ferrous ion concentration of 25 mg/L. It was found that that p-hydroxybenzoic acid and m-hydroxybenzoic acid were generated as intermediate products in the degradation of benzoic acid.


Zhang J.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Yu J.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | An W.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Liu J.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

The formation potential of four trihalomethanes (THMFP) and seven haloacetic acids (HAA7FP) in 13 source waters taken from four major water basin areas in China was evaluated using the simulated distribution system (SDS) chlorination method. The specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254: the ratio of UV254 to dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), which ranged between 0.9 and 5.0 L/(mg·m), showed that the organic compounds in different source waters exhibited different reactivities with chlorine. The HAA7FP of source waters ranged from 20 to 448 μg/L and the THMFP ranged from 29 to 259 μg/L. The HAA7FP concentrations were higher than the THMFP concentrations in all but one of the samples. Therefore, the risks of haloacetic acids (HAAs) should be of concern in some source waters. TCM (chloroform) and BDCM (bromodichloromethane) were the major THM constituents, while TCAA (trichloroacetic acid) and DCAA (dichloroacetic acid) were the major HAA species. Br-THM (brominated THM species) were much higher than Br-HAA (brominated HAA species), and the formation of Br-DBP (Br-THM and Br-HAA) should be of concern when the bromide concentration is over 100 μg/L. © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Liu Z.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Yan X.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Drikas M.,South Australia Water Corporation | Zhou D.,Beijing Waterworks Group | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

The contamination of surface and ground water by bentazone has attracted increasing global concern in recent years. We conducted a detailed investigation using MIEX resin to eliminate bentazone from waters. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of process parameters, such as retention time, resin amount, and initial pesticide concentration, on removal efficiency of bentazone. Results showed the sorption process was fast and bentazone could be efficiently removed in 30 minutes. The kinetic process of bentazone sorption on MIEX resin was well described by pseudo second-order model and intraparticle diffusion was the rate controlling step. The MIEX resin possessed the highest sorption capacity of 0.2656 mmol/mL for bentazone according to Langmuir fitting. Bentazone is a hydrophobic ionizable organic compound, and both ionic charge and hydrophobic aromatic structure governed the sorption characteristics on MIEX resin. The different removal efficiencies of ionic and non-ionic pesticides, combined with the charge balance equations of bentazone, SO4 2-, NO3 - and Cl-, indicated that removal of bentazone using MIEX resin occurred primarily via ion exchange. © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Li W.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Ling W.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Liu S.,Beijing Waterworks Group | Zhao J.,Beijing Waterworks Group | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

Water leakage in drinking water distribution systems is a serious problem for many cities and a huge challenge for water utilities. An integrated system for the detection, early warning, and control of pipeline leakage has been developed and successfully used to manage the pipeline networks in selected areas of Beijing. A method based on the geographic information system has been proposed to quickly and automatically optimize the layout of the instruments which detect leaks. Methods are also proposed to estimate the probability of each pipe segment leaking (on the basis of historic leakage data), and to assist in locating the leakage points (based on leakage signals). The district metering area (DMA) strategy is used. Guidelines and a flowchart for establishing a DMA to manage the large-scale looped networks in Beijing are proposed. These different functions have been implemented into a central software system to simplify the day-to-day use of the system. In 2007 the system detected 102 non-obvious leakages (i.e., 14.2% of the total detected in Beijing) in the selected areas, which was estimated to save a total volume of 2,385,000 m 3 of water. These results indicate the feasibility, efficiency and wider applicability of this system. © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Zhang J.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | An W.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Song L.,China Academy of Urban Planning and Design | Yu J.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2010

The formation potentials of five haloacetic acids (HAA5FP) in 13 surface water samples taken from eight cities from northeast to south China were evaluated using the simulated distribution system (SDS) chlorination method. These samples showed a wide range of HAA5FP levels (20 to 443 μg L-1). Four pre-oxidation methods were evaluated for their performance in enhancing HAA5FP removal from six water samples by coagulation. Pre-Cl2 and pre-KMnO4 were not effective. While pre-ClO2 showed some enhancing effects for all samples, pre-O 3 exhibited markedly higher effects without producing perceptible oxidation by-products such as bromate and formaldehyde. An enhancement factor (EF) value of 13-17% was achieved at an ozone dose of 0.5 mg L-1 and the maximum EF values were 16-25% at an ozone dose of 1.5-2.0 mg O3 L-1 (0.3-0.7 mg O3/mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC)). A 3D contour plot was applied to interpret the effects of two independent variables (DOC and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254)) on the formation potential of HAA5 using a quadratic smoothing technique, and it was found that the enhancing effect on the removal of HAA5FP by pre-ozonation was attributed to the destruction of reactive sites of organic compound, which could be expressed by the changes of SUVA254. © IWA Publishing 2010.

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