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Zheng W.,Tianjin University | Yang Y.M.,Technology Development CO | Li Y.L.,Beijing Plant Protection Station | Zheng J.Q.,Beijing Plant Protection Station
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

The process technique and design parameters of project of Solar Ozonic Ecological Sewage Treatment Plant (short for SOESTP) which consists of anaerobic reactor, horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetlands(CWs) and the combination of solar power and ozone disinfection are described, the paper further examines the removal efficiency for treating rural domestic sewage, running expense and recycling ability of product water. The results show that the average percentage removal values of CODcr, BOD5, SS, TN, NH3-N, TP range from 95.6% to 98.0%, 96.0% to 98.7%, 93.1% to 96.1%, 97.0% to 98.9%, 96.9% to 99.5%, 98.2% to 99.6%, respectively, the reduction of fecal coliform (FC) reaches 99.9%, the effluent quality meets the first level A criteria specified in Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB18918-2002). The running cost of SOESTP is 0.063yuan/ m3, saves much more than traditional sewage treatment, and the ozone water obtained from the reservoir will be an ideal choice for disinfection.The system has characteristics of easy manipulation, low operating cost, achieving advanced water, energy conservation and environment protection, is thought to be very suitable for use as the promotion of rural small - scale sewage treatment. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


PubMed | Neijiang Academy of Agricultural science, Beijing Plant Protection Station, Shandong Agricultural University, National University of Singapore and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2017

Seed size is a major determinant of seed yield but few is known about the genetics controlling of seed size in plants. Phytohormones cytokinin and brassinosteroid were known to be involved in the regulation of herbaceous plant seed development. Here we identified a homolog of Auxin Response Factor 19 (JcARF19) from a woody plant Jatropha curcas and genetically demonstrated its functions in controlling seed size and seed yield. Through Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), we found that JcARF19 was a positive upstream modulator in auxin signaling and may control plant organ size in J. curcas. Importantly, transgenic overexpression of JcARF19 significantly increased seed size and seed yield in plants Arabidopsis thaliana and J. curcas, indicating the importance of auxin pathway in seed yield controlling in dicot plants. Transcripts analysis indicated that ectopic expression of JcARF19 in J. curcas upregulated auxin responsive genes encoding essential regulators in cell differentiation and cytoskeletal dynamics of seed development. Our data suggested the potential of improving seed traits by precisely engineering auxin signaling in woody perennial plants.


Wang X.,China Agricultural University | He X.,China Agricultural University | Herbst A.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Langenakens J.,AAMS Salvarani Bvba | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014

The use of pesticides is an important part of modern agriculture and contributes to the productivity and the quality of the cultivated crop. Pesticide exposure via spray drift can have a negative impact on bystanders, residents, livestock, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Several reviews related to drift phenomenon have been published since the negative effect of spray drift has been recognized. Spray drift is affected by environmental and meteorological conditions, the spray technique and the crop. Wind speed and wind direction are meteorological factors affecting spray deposition. Relative humidity and high air temperature can reinforce evaporation by decreasing the droplet size of particularly small spray droplets, subsequently decreasing their sedimentation velocity and making them more drift-prone. The fate of spray droplets is influenced by operating conditions such as application height, driving speed of sprayer, and nozzle spacing. Air-assisted spraying and use of shielded sprayers in general reduce spray drift. The use of an end nozzle at the edge of the field can prevent overspray of pesticides. A new equipment was developed to study spray drift of boom sprayer and to evaluate drift risk of different spray equipment in this study. ISO 22369-2-2010 had been proposed in which sprayers were classified based on the results of field tests conducted following the ISO 22866 Standard "Methods for field measurement of spray drift". However, this test required well defined and stable conditions of wind speed and wind direction with respect to the sprayer travel direction. As an alternative methodology to simplify the assessment of spray drift risk for different equipment, this study developed drift test system to assess the amount of drift generated by field boom sprayers. The system was expected to be an effective alternative for drift assessment when wind tunnel was unavailable. This study followed the ISO 22369-2-2010 standard to test the potential drift of different nozzles indoor. According to the international standard ISO 22369-2-2010, the spray drift potential of six kinds of fan nozzle (XR110-04, IDK120-03, IDK120-04, ID120-015, ID120-025, and ID120-05) were tested and evaluated indoor by measuring the drift loss and calculating the potential drift. The method could be used for direct evaluation of drift. In the test, BSF (1‰) tracers were used to test the droplet. The test showed that the droplet size and pressure were the main factors affecting drift loss (P<0.05). When the pressure was 0.3 MPa, the potential drift of XR110-04 was 33%, which was much higher than the other 5 kinds of nozzles. The potential drift loss of nozzle Lechler ID120-025 was only 6%, which was the minimum. The risk of spray drift was closely related with the spray pressure in this study. The result showed that as the spray pressure increased, the volume of the droplet diameter became smaller, which greatly increased the potential drift. The results can provide valuble information for the reduction of pesticide spray drift and drift classification.


Liang Y.,China Agricultural University | Wang R.,China Agricultural University | Chen S.,China Agricultural University | Fan Z.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) is among the most destructive tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) diseases around the world. TYLCD is mainly caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in China. To screen the hosts of TYLCV, which is required for integrated management of TYLCD, an extensive survey totaling 308 samples from 54 vegetable and weed species in 12 families infected by TYLCV was conducted during 2010-2011 in Beijing, China. Testing by multiplex PCR to detect TYLCV-Israel and TYLCV-Mld revealed Cucumis sativus, Luffa cylindrica, Lagenaria siceraria and Benincasa hispida in Cucurbitaceae, Datura stramonium, Solanum nigrum, Solanum melongena and Capsicum annuum in Solanaceae, Vigna sinensis in Leguminosae, Xanthium sibiricum, Inula britannica, Hemistepta lyrata and Eclipta prostrate in Compositae, Amaranth spinosus in Amaranthaceae and Abutilon theophrasti in Malvaceae were infected by TYLCV-Israel, while Cucurbita moschata in Cucurbitaceae, and Humulus scandens in Moracea were infected by TYLCV-Mld. The much higher incidence of TYLCV-Israel strain indicated it was prevalent in Beijing. Based on the results, removing other vegetables and weeds would help to control TYLCD, and further work would focus on host preferences and their capacity to acquire and transmit TYLCV.


Zhu C.,China Agricultural University | Zhu C.,Chinese Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals | Xie B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zheng J.,Beijing Plant Protection Station | Li J.,China Agricultural University
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2011

A safe and reasonable application of pesticides expert system was designed with B/S structure which had six sub-systems such as pests querying, pest identifying, decision-making of control methods, pesticide recommendation, knowledge management and expert consulting. Ontology technology was applied to model expert knowledge in order to achieve high intelligent reasoning and the sharing, and the knowledge reusing. Furthermore, a multi-factor model of pesticide evaluation was designed for comprehensively considering various factors that affect the reasonable selection of pesticides. The implemented prototype system verified that the solution was low-cost, high scalable, user-friendly and efficient. It is widely prospective in various vegetable productions and will supply a guideline for other crops production.


Liu H.W.,China Agricultural University | Luo L.X.,China Agricultural University | Li J.Q.,China Agricultural University | Liu P.F.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is transmitted mechanically in cucurbits, but whether it is transmitted via pollen to healthy plants and onto the subsequent generation of seedlings is unknown. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the importance of this route of infection. Cucumber seedlings at the 3-true-leaf stage were mechanically inoculated with CGMMV. At anthesis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to verify the presence of CGMMV. Pollen was collected from the flowers of the infected plants and used to fertilize non-inoculated plants. The rate of CGMMV transmission to the resulting fruits ranged from 17·1 to 51·2% compared with 33·3-100% for mechanically inoculated plants. Seeds were harvested from the cucumber fruits of both treatments and tested for the presence of CGMMV by RT-PCR. The CGMMV-positive seeds harvested from the two treatments were sown separately. The seed transmission rates for the inoculated and non-inoculated plants were 16·7-100% and 12·8-76·7%, respectively. It was concluded that CGMMV can be transmitted both horizontally via cucumber pollen and vertically, to the next generation, in infected seeds. In addition the rate of seed transmission was much higher than previous reports. These findings have important implications for the disease management of CGMMV. © 2013 British Society for Plant Pathology.


Li Z.,China Agricultural University | Li B.,Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine | Hu Z.,Henan University of Science and Technology | Michaud J.P.,Kansas State University | And 3 more authors.
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2015

In Asia, the pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is the most important vector of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Steiner and Buhrer (Aphelenchida: Parasitaphelenchidae), the causal agent of pine wilt disease, and the ectoparasitoid Scleroderma guani Xiao et Wu (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is the most important natural enemy of this pest. Efficient host location is critical to parasitoid fitness, and chemical cues are key factors guiding the host searching process. This study was conducted to elucidate the odor cues guiding host location in S. guani and the impact of previous host experience on this behavior. Tests were conducted in which S. guani oriented to different odor resources associated with M. alternatus and its habitat, and components of these volatiles were analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Orientation to various odors also was investigated using adult S. guani subjected to different adult experiences. Female S. guani could easily distinguish M. alternatus larvae from other odor resources. Hydrocarbons were the main components of volatiles derived from M. alternatus larvae and were absent in volatiles from wood and frass associated with M. alternatus larvae. Female S. guani oriented most strongly to 1st and 3rd instars of M. alternatus. Prior experience of host odor without oviposition decreased orientation of S. guani towards the host, and the host used for rearing had no impact on subsequent odor orientation by adult S. guani. Volatile hydrocarbons emanating from host larvae might be the key to host location by adult S. guani, and experience with hosts appears to reinforce behavioral responses. The present results may be useful references for improving augmentative biological control using S. guani against M. alternatus and other forest pests.


Liu Y.-N.,Peking Union Medical College | Li Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Dong J.,Beijing Plant Protection Station | Zhang J.-L.,Beijing Plant Protection Station | And 2 more authors.
Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi | Year: 2015

The paper is aimed to establish a method of residue analysis for thiamethoxam and to study its degradation dynamic and final residue and its standard of safe application of thiamethoxam on Lonicera japonica. Samples extracted with methanol by ultrasonica-tion were purified with dichloromethane by liquid-liquid extraction and SPE column and analysed by HPLC-UV. The results showed that average rate was 84. 91 %-94. 44% and RSD 1.74%-4. 96% with addition of thiamethoxam in respectively diverse concentration, which meets inspection requirement of pesticide residue. Two kinds of dosages of thiamethoxam were treated- varying from recommended dosage (90 g • hrn) to high dosage (135 g • hm), Results of two years test showed that thiamethoxam was degraded more than 90% seven days after application and the half - life period of thiamethoxam was 1. 54-1. 66 d. The digestion rate of thiamethoxam was fast in the L. japonica. The recommended MRL of thiamethoxam in the L. japonica is 0. 1 mg • kg-1, the dosage of 25% thiamethoxam WDG from 90-135 g • hm-2 is sprayed less than three times a year on L. japonica and 14 days is proposed for the safety interval of the last pesticide application's and harvest's date.


Zhang F.,China Agricultural University | Wang L.,China Agricultural University | Zhou L.,China Agricultural University | Wu D.,Beijing Plant Protection Station | And 2 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2012

A modified QuEChERS-LC-MS/MS (acronym of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) method for the analysis of pyraclostrobin residue in peanut and soil was developed and validated. Pyraclostrobin residue dynamics and final residues in supervised field trials at Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) conditions in peanut and soil were studied. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) for pyraclostrobin in soil, plant, shell and peanut samples were 0.00057, 0.00026, 0.003 and 0.0037mgkg -1, respectively. At fortification levels of 0.005, 0.05 and 0.5mgkg -1 in all samples, it was shown that recoveries ranged from 80.3% to 109.4% with relative standard deviations of 1.1-8.2% (n=5). The dissipation experiments showed the half-lives (T 1/2) of pyraclostrobin in soil and plants were 13.1-16.5 days and 10.3-11.2 days, respectively. At pre-harvest intervals (PHI) of 14, 21 and 28 days, pyraclostrobin residue were 0.005-0.20mgkg -1 in soil, 0.006-0.27mgkg -1 in plants, below 0.053mgkg -1 in shells and not detectable in peanuts. © 2011 .


Zhu X.,China Agricultural University | Chen X.,Beijing Plant Protection Station | Guo L.,China Agricultural University
Plant Disease | Year: 2011

In total, 455 Monilinia isolates from stone fruits collected from several provinces (cities) in China from 2003 to 2009 were identified to species based on morphological characteristics, molecular identification, and the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 and the 5.8S gene of the ribosomal RNA. Overall, four species were detected (Monilinia fructicola, M. fructigena, M. laxa, and Monilia polystroma). M. fructicola was the most prevalent (93.0%) followed by M. fructigena (4.8%), M. laxa (2.0%), and Monilia polystroma (0.2%). M. fructicola and M. fructigena were found on peach, plum, and apricot; M. laxa was found only on apricot, cherry (in an organic orchard), and wild peach; and Monilia polystroma was found only on plum in Heilongjiang. The pathogenicity of Monilinia fructicola, M. laxa, and M. fructigena did not significantly differ on wounded nectarine and apricot, indicating that the differences in frequency of occurrence were not linked to virulence. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequences showed that the isolates of M. laxa and M. fructigena from China differed from isolates of these species from other countries, and that the difference led to the separation of the isolates from China and those from other countries into different phylogenetic groups. Further study is needed to determine whether they are cryptic species. © 2011 The American Phytopathological Society.

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