Chen Z.-Y.,Peking University |
Chen Z.-Y.,Capital Medical University |
Jie Y.,Capital Medical University |
Jie Y.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory |
Yu G.-Y.,Peking University
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2011
Purpose. To investigate the feasibility of parotid duct transposition after tympanic neurectomy to treat severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits. Methods. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups in experiment 1. One eye was operated on, and the contralateral eye served as the control. In the KCS group, the lacrimal gland, harderian gland, and nictitating membrane were removed. In the group with parotid duct transposition (DT), the parotid duct was transposed into the lower conjunctival fornix. In the group with parotid duct transposition after tympanic neurectomy (DTTN), the tympanic nerve was resected in addition to parotid duct transposition. Schirmer test was performed and density of corneal staining was determined monthly after surgery, and goblet cell density was measured at postoperative month 3. In experiment 2, the tympanic nerve was resected on one side in 12 rabbits. Both sides of the parotid gland were resected for histopathology at intervals of 2 months to 1 year after surgery. Results. Tear secretion from operated eyes at rest increased significantly after surgery in the treatment groups compared with the KCS group. Tear secretion from operated eyes after chewing was significantly lower in the DTTN than in the DT group. The corneal staining scores were higher in the operated than in the control eyes of the three groups, without significant difference among the operated eyes. Parotid gland atrophy on the operated side occurred at postoperative month 4 and recovered to normal 1 year after surgery. Conclusions. Parotid duct transposition after tympanic neurectomy could effectively reduce gustatory epiphora but may be insufficient to promote ocular surface health. © Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
Liang Y.B.,Capital Medical University |
Liang Y.B.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory |
Liang Y.B.,Chinese University of Hong Kong |
Feng M.Y.,Capital Medical University |
And 11 more authors.
Journal of Glaucoma | Year: 2014
PURPOSE: To compare the postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) and incidence of early complications after trabeculectomy with releasable suture to standard trabeculectomy in Chinese patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred seventy-five patients diagnosed as primary angle-closure glaucoma with 6 clock-hours or more of peripheral anterior synechia were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups: 87 underwent standard trabeculectomy (S group: 2 interrupted permanent sutures to the scleral flap) and 88 received trabeculectomy with 2 permanent and 2 releasable sutures (R group). The postoperative IOP and complications during the first 3 months after surgery were compared. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-one patients (97.7%) attended the 3-month visit. The IOP in the first week after trabeculectomy was significantly higher in the R group: day 1, 17.3±8.6 versus 12.7±6.0 mm Hg (P<0.001); day 3, 18.0±7.3 versus 12.9±6.3 mm Hg (P<0.001); day 7, 14.8±6.3 versus 12.0±4.9 mm Hg (P=0.001), but no difference was observed after the second week (P=0.659 to 0.753). The incidence of transient hypotony was higher in S group (20.4%) than the R group (9.1%) (P=0.046); hypotony recovered in 80.8% (21/26) within 1 week. There was no difference in the occurrence of shallow chamber, choroidal detachment, macular edema, additional surgery, or hyphema (P=0.56 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The technique of releasable sutures for trabeculectomy used in this study did not demonstrate significant advantages over standard trabeculectomy. Releasable sutures were associated with some decrease in visual acuity and increase in postoperative complaints. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Jonas J.B.,University of Heidelberg |
Wang N.,Capital Medical University |
Wang N.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual science Key Laboratory
Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research | Year: 2013
Eyes with normal-pressure glaucoma and those with high-pressure glaucoma can show a similar optic nerve head appearance, while eyes with vascular optic neuropathies show a markedly different optic disc appearance. Factors in addition to intraocular pressure (IOP) may thus play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Clinical and experimental studies showed that (1) physiologic associations between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, systemic arterial blood pressure, IOP and body mass index exist; (2) a low CSF pressure was associated with the development of glaucomatous optic nerve damage in cats; (3) patients with normal (intraocular) pressure glaucoma had significantly lower CSF pressure and a higher trans lamina cribrosa pressure difference when compared to normal subjects; and (4) patients with normalpressure glaucoma as compared with patients with high-pressure glaucoma have a significantly narrower orbital CSF space. A shallow orbital CSF space has been shown to be associated with a low CSF pressure. Due to anatomic reasons, the orbital CSF pressure and the optic nerve tissue pressure (and not the atmospheric pressure) form the retro-laminar counter-pressure against the IOP and are thus part of the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference and gradient. Assuming that an elevated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference and a steeper trans-lamina cribrosa pressure gradient are important for glaucomatous optic nerve damage, a low orbital CSF pressure would therefore play a role in the pathogenesis of normal-(intraocular) pressure glaucoma. Due to the association between CSF pressure and blood pressure, a low blood pressure could be indirectly involved.
Wang N.L.,Capital Medical University |
Wang N.L.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory |
Wang N.L.,Beijing Eye Institute |
Hao J.,Capital Medical University |
And 12 more authors.
Journal of Glaucoma | Year: 2016
Purpose: (1) To investigate the reference value of peak-trough difference in circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure (IOP) in habitual position and (2) to compare the IOP parameters among 3 age groups. Materials and Methods: Habitual IOP of healthy subjects sampled from the population in the Handan Eye Study was measured every 2 hours in the seated position during light-wake period (7:30 am, 9:30 AM, 11:30 AM, 1:30 PM, 3:30 PM, 5:30 PM, 7:30 PM, 9:30 PM) and in the supine position during dark-sleep period (11:30 PM, 1:30 AM, 3:30 AM, 5:30 AM). Blood pressure and heart rate were obtained subsequently at each IOP measurement. Results: Two hundred six healthy subjects were included in the final analyses (n=20, 30 to 39 y old; n=95, 40 to 49 y old; n=91, 50 to 59 y old). For peak-trough difference (7.2±2.3 mm Hg; 6.8 to 7.5 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval) in habitual position, the reference value was described as median 7.0 mm Hg, 25th percentile 5.5 mm Hg, and 95th percentile 11.5 mm Hg. No significant differences in peak-trough difference, acrophase (cosine-fit analysis derived peak timing) and amplitude (half distance between the cosine-fit maximum and minimum) were found among the 3 age groups. In the cosine model, the nocturnal acrophase (3:49±0.53 AM; 3:42 to 3:55 AM, 95% confidence interval) was detected for the entire group. Furthermore, 106 subjects (52%) had a nocturnal peak pattern, 36 subjects (17%) had a diurnal peak pattern, and 64 subjects (31%) had no evident pattern. Conclusions: In habitual position, 75% of healthy subjects from a population-based investigation had IOP variation >5.5 mm Hg and 95% subjects had <11.5 mm Hg variation. Aging may not influence the circadian habitual IOP rhythm. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang X.,Capital Medical University |
Zhang X.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual science Key Laboratory |
Zhang X.,University of Sydney |
Lai D.,University of Sydney |
And 3 more authors.
Current Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013
Objective: Intravitreal glucocorticoids and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are novel strategies for the treatment of advanced diabetic retinopathy, a condition with inflammatory and neuropathic elements. In contrast with anti-VEGF therapy, glucocorticoids may also exert neuroprotective effects. How glucocorticoids protect retinal neurons is unknown. The aims of the study are to investigate the anti-apoptotic actions of glucocorticoids on diabetic retinal neurons, and characterize the signalling pathways involved. Research Design and Methods: The regulation of gene expression of the four p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) isoforms (α, β, δ and γ) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the retinas was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Phosphorylation of all isoforms p38MAPK (Thr180/Tyr182) and GR (S-211) was further evaluated. Apoptosis was confirmed by immunolocalization of active CASPASE-3 and the subsequent cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) following intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA), in an early diabetic rat model (26 days after induction of diabetes). Results: IVTA significantly down-regulated mRNA expression of Caspase 3. Activation of CASPASE-3, the subsequent cleavage of PARP-1 and phosphorylation of p38MAPK induced by diabetes were attenuated by IVTA treatment, concomitantly with activation by phosphorylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR S-211). Conclusions: IVTA activates the GR and exerts neural protective effects on retinal neurons. Inhibition of the p38MAPK pathway and activation of GR play a critical anti-apoptotic role in retinal neurons of diabetes following IVTA treatment. Both the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of glucocorticoids may be mediated through inhibition of the p38MAPK pathway in diabetic retinopathy. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.
Chen Y.Y.,Capital Medical University |
Chen Y.Y.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory |
Wang W.Y.,Capital Medical University |
Wang W.Y.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory |
And 8 more authors.
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2014
Background With the increasing popularity of cosmetic facial filler injections in recent years, more and more associated complications have been reported. However, the causative surgical procedures and preventative measures have not been studied well up to now. The aim of this stady was to investigate the clinical characteristics and visual prognosis of fundus artery occlusion resulting from cosmetic facial filler injections. Methods Thirteen consecutive patients with fundus artery occlusion caused by facial filler injections were included. Main outcome measures were filler materials, injection sites, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus fluorescein angiography, and associated ocular and systemic manifestations. Results Eleven patients had ophthalmic artery occlusion (OAO) and one patient each had central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION). Injected materials included autologous fat (seven cases), hyaluronic acid (five cases), and bone collagen (one case). Injection sites were the frontal area (five cases), periocular area (two cases), temple area (two cases), and nose area and nasal area (4 cases). Injected autologous fat was associated with worse final BCVA than hyaluronic acid. The BCVA of seven patients with autologous fat injection in frontal area and temple area was no light perception. Most of the patients with OAO had ocular pain, headache, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and no improvement in final BCVA. Conclusions Cosmetic facial injections can cause fundus artery occlusion. Autologous fat injection tends to be associated with painful blindness, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and poor visual outcomes. The prognosis is much worse with autologous fat injection than hyaluronic acid injection.
Tang Y.,Capital Medical University |
Wu S.,Capital Medical University |
Wu S.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory |
Liu Q.,Capital Medical University |
And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
Mertk belongs to the Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, and plays a pivotal role in regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement during phagocytosis. Phagocytosis by either professional or non-professional phagocytes is impaired in the Mertk deficient individual. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Mertk mutation on peritoneal macrophage morphology, attachment, spreading and movement. Mertk-mutated macrophages exhibited decreased attachment, weak spreading, loss of spindle-like body shape and lack of clear leading and trailing edges within the first few hours of culture, as observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Time-lapse video photography recording showed that macrophage without Mertk conducted mainly random movement with oscillating swing around the cell body, and lost the directional migration action seen on the WT cells. Western blotting showed a decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Immunocytochemistry revealed that actin filaments and dynamic protein myosin II failed to concentrate in the leading edge of migrating cells. Microtubules were localized mainly in one side of mutant cell body, with no clear MTOC and associated radially-distributed microtubule bundles, which were clearly evident in theWT cells. Our results suggest that Mertk deficiency affects not only phagocytosis but also cell shape and migration, likely through a common regulatory mechanism on cytoskeletons. © 2015 Tang et al.
Zhao H.-S.,Capital Medical University |
Zhao H.-S.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual science Key Laboratory |
Shi X.-Y.,Capital Medical University |
Shi X.-Y.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual science Key Laboratory |
And 4 more authors.
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2013
Background Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) plays an important role in the death of retinal capillary cells in diabetic retinopathy (DR) partly via its regulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). The current study investigated the effect of the regimen of Gaoshan Hongjingtian (RG) on the mechanism of PARP regulation of NF-κB, and demonstrated the possible impact of the RG and Gaoshan Hongjingtian (Rhodiola sachalinensis, RS) on diabetic retinopathy. Methods Wistar rats were made diabetic by administering streptozotocin. They were then assigned to three groups at random. After 2 months, the three groups of these diabetic rats were treated with RS or RG, or untreated. Analyses of expression levels of PARP, NF-κB, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the retinas of rats in different groups were performed by Western blotting and immunohistochemical assays, and mRNA levels of NF-κB and ICAM-1 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, the basement membranes of capillaries in the rats' retinas were observed using electron microscopy, and diabetes-induced capillary degeneration (ghost pericytes and acellular capillaries) were quantitated. Results From the third month after the injection of streptozotocin, the diabetic rats were given daily RG, RS or tap water separately. The diabetic rats failed to gain weight compared with normal age-matched rats, whereas their glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly increased. After 5 months, the mRNA levels of NF-κB and ICAM-1 and the protein expression of PARP, NF-κB, and ICAM-1 were significantly increased in the retinas of diabetic rats in the untreated group compared with the nondiabetic controls. After 8 months, the number of degenerated retinal capillaries (ghost pericytes and acellular capillaries) was significantly increased in the diabetic rats in the untreated group compared with normal age-matched rats. RG and RS inhibited diabetes-induced over-expression of PARP, NF-κB, and ICAM-1 in the retinas of diabetic rats at the end of 5-month diabetic duration. Treatment using RG and RS significantly inhibited increases in the number of acellular capillaries and pericyte ghosts and suppressed the basement membrane thickening in the retinas of rats with diabetes for 8 months compared with the control diabetic rats. Conclusions These results indicate that PARP plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. RS and RG may have acted on the mechanism of PARP regulation of NF-κB, which suppressed the expression of NF-κB and ICAM-1, and led to the inhibition of retinal capillary degeneration.
Zeng H.-Y.,Capital Medical University |
Zeng H.-Y.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory |
Lu Q.-J.,Capital Medical University |
Lu Q.-J.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory |
And 5 more authors.
Current Eye Research | Year: 2011
Purpose: Chemokine receptors are reported to be involved in neuronal cell death and CNS neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression of CCR1, a major chemokine receptor for CC chemokines in retinal dystrophy in rd (retinal degeneration) mice and further explore its role in photoreceptor degeneration. Materials and Methods: The expression levels of CCR1 mRNA in the whole control and rd retinas at postnatal days (P) 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 were determined by RT-PCR assay. Location of CCR1 in the retina of rd mice at each age group was studied by immunohistochemical analysis. Expression of CCR1 in the photoreceptor cells and apoptotic cells was determined by double labeling. Results: Expression of CCR1 mRNA was noted in both control and rd retinas at each age group. CCR1-positive cells started to emerge in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in rd retinas at P8 and reached a peak at P12 and P14. Double labeling of CCR1 with rhodopsin, CD11b, or TUNEL staining showed expression of CCR1 in the photoreceptor cells, rather than in the microglial cells. Partial CCR1 expression was observed in some of the apoptotic photoreceptor cells. Conclusions: Expression of CCR1 in the photoreceptor cells was increased with the progress of retinal degeneration in rd mice. Activation of CCR1 may play a role in the photoreceptor apoptosis. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Li D.,Capital Medical University |
Li D.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory
Journal of AAPOS | Year: 2012
Purpose: To report the results of enlarging orbital volume in consecutive cases of severe congenital microphthalmia by means of solid hydrophilic tissue expanders. Methods: The medical records of consecutive patients with congenital microphthalmia who underwent the placement of a hydrogel expander were retrospectively reviewed. Main outcome measures were orbital tissue expansion, prosthetic retention, and patient family satisfaction. Results: A total of 17 patients were included in the study. All patients were able to retain an ocular prosthesis. The horizontal palpebral length increased from 71.3% of the contralateral unaffected eye to 85.4% of the contralateral unaffected eye. The expansion of orbital volume was assessed in seven patients. The volume of the microphthalmic orbits was expanded from 74.7% of the contralateral unaffected orbits to 83.5% of the contralateral unaffected orbits. Aesthetic results were satisfactory to both physicians and patient families. The following complications were noted in two patients: inferior migration of a spherical expander occurred in one case; a hemispheric expander was removed by the patient in another case. Conclusions: Hydrogel implants can successfully expand the dimensions of the conjunctival sac and the orbit in cases of severe congenital microphthalmia. Copyright © 2012 by the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.