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Chen Z.-Y.,Peking University | Chen Z.-Y.,Capital Medical University | Jie Y.,Capital Medical University | Jie Y.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory | Yu G.-Y.,Peking University
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2011

Purpose. To investigate the feasibility of parotid duct transposition after tympanic neurectomy to treat severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits. Methods. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups in experiment 1. One eye was operated on, and the contralateral eye served as the control. In the KCS group, the lacrimal gland, harderian gland, and nictitating membrane were removed. In the group with parotid duct transposition (DT), the parotid duct was transposed into the lower conjunctival fornix. In the group with parotid duct transposition after tympanic neurectomy (DTTN), the tympanic nerve was resected in addition to parotid duct transposition. Schirmer test was performed and density of corneal staining was determined monthly after surgery, and goblet cell density was measured at postoperative month 3. In experiment 2, the tympanic nerve was resected on one side in 12 rabbits. Both sides of the parotid gland were resected for histopathology at intervals of 2 months to 1 year after surgery. Results. Tear secretion from operated eyes at rest increased significantly after surgery in the treatment groups compared with the KCS group. Tear secretion from operated eyes after chewing was significantly lower in the DTTN than in the DT group. The corneal staining scores were higher in the operated than in the control eyes of the three groups, without significant difference among the operated eyes. Parotid gland atrophy on the operated side occurred at postoperative month 4 and recovered to normal 1 year after surgery. Conclusions. Parotid duct transposition after tympanic neurectomy could effectively reduce gustatory epiphora but may be insufficient to promote ocular surface health. © Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.

Jonas J.B.,University of Heidelberg | Wang N.,Capital Medical University | Wang N.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory
Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research | Year: 2013

Eyes with normal-pressure glaucoma and those with high-pressure glaucoma can show a similar optic nerve head appearance, while eyes with vascular optic neuropathies show a markedly different optic disc appearance. Factors in addition to intraocular pressure (IOP) may thus play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Clinical and experimental studies showed that (1) physiologic associations between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, systemic arterial blood pressure, IOP and body mass index exist; (2) a low CSF pressure was associated with the development of glaucomatous optic nerve damage in cats; (3) patients with normal (intraocular) pressure glaucoma had significantly lower CSF pressure and a higher trans lamina cribrosa pressure difference when compared to normal subjects; and (4) patients with normalpressure glaucoma as compared with patients with high-pressure glaucoma have a significantly narrower orbital CSF space. A shallow orbital CSF space has been shown to be associated with a low CSF pressure. Due to anatomic reasons, the orbital CSF pressure and the optic nerve tissue pressure (and not the atmospheric pressure) form the retro-laminar counter-pressure against the IOP and are thus part of the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference and gradient. Assuming that an elevated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference and a steeper trans-lamina cribrosa pressure gradient are important for glaucomatous optic nerve damage, a low orbital CSF pressure would therefore play a role in the pathogenesis of normal-(intraocular) pressure glaucoma. Due to the association between CSF pressure and blood pressure, a low blood pressure could be indirectly involved.

Zhang X.,Capital Medical University | Zhang X.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory | Zhang X.,University of Sydney | Lai D.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Current Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: Intravitreal glucocorticoids and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are novel strategies for the treatment of advanced diabetic retinopathy, a condition with inflammatory and neuropathic elements. In contrast with anti-VEGF therapy, glucocorticoids may also exert neuroprotective effects. How glucocorticoids protect retinal neurons is unknown. The aims of the study are to investigate the anti-apoptotic actions of glucocorticoids on diabetic retinal neurons, and characterize the signalling pathways involved. Research Design and Methods: The regulation of gene expression of the four p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) isoforms (α, β, δ and γ) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the retinas was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Phosphorylation of all isoforms p38MAPK (Thr180/Tyr182) and GR (S-211) was further evaluated. Apoptosis was confirmed by immunolocalization of active CASPASE-3 and the subsequent cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) following intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA), in an early diabetic rat model (26 days after induction of diabetes). Results: IVTA significantly down-regulated mRNA expression of Caspase 3. Activation of CASPASE-3, the subsequent cleavage of PARP-1 and phosphorylation of p38MAPK induced by diabetes were attenuated by IVTA treatment, concomitantly with activation by phosphorylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR S-211). Conclusions: IVTA activates the GR and exerts neural protective effects on retinal neurons. Inhibition of the p38MAPK pathway and activation of GR play a critical anti-apoptotic role in retinal neurons of diabetes following IVTA treatment. Both the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of glucocorticoids may be mediated through inhibition of the p38MAPK pathway in diabetic retinopathy. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Li D.,Capital Medical University | Li D.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory
Journal of AAPOS | Year: 2012

Purpose: To report the results of enlarging orbital volume in consecutive cases of severe congenital microphthalmia by means of solid hydrophilic tissue expanders. Methods: The medical records of consecutive patients with congenital microphthalmia who underwent the placement of a hydrogel expander were retrospectively reviewed. Main outcome measures were orbital tissue expansion, prosthetic retention, and patient family satisfaction. Results: A total of 17 patients were included in the study. All patients were able to retain an ocular prosthesis. The horizontal palpebral length increased from 71.3% of the contralateral unaffected eye to 85.4% of the contralateral unaffected eye. The expansion of orbital volume was assessed in seven patients. The volume of the microphthalmic orbits was expanded from 74.7% of the contralateral unaffected orbits to 83.5% of the contralateral unaffected orbits. Aesthetic results were satisfactory to both physicians and patient families. The following complications were noted in two patients: inferior migration of a spherical expander occurred in one case; a hemispheric expander was removed by the patient in another case. Conclusions: Hydrogel implants can successfully expand the dimensions of the conjunctival sac and the orbit in cases of severe congenital microphthalmia. Copyright © 2012 by the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

Liang Y.B.,Capital Medical University | Liang Y.B.,Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory | Liang Y.B.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Feng M.Y.,Capital Medical University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Glaucoma | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: To compare the postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) and incidence of early complications after trabeculectomy with releasable suture to standard trabeculectomy in Chinese patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred seventy-five patients diagnosed as primary angle-closure glaucoma with 6 clock-hours or more of peripheral anterior synechia were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups: 87 underwent standard trabeculectomy (S group: 2 interrupted permanent sutures to the scleral flap) and 88 received trabeculectomy with 2 permanent and 2 releasable sutures (R group). The postoperative IOP and complications during the first 3 months after surgery were compared. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-one patients (97.7%) attended the 3-month visit. The IOP in the first week after trabeculectomy was significantly higher in the R group: day 1, 17.3±8.6 versus 12.7±6.0 mm Hg (P<0.001); day 3, 18.0±7.3 versus 12.9±6.3 mm Hg (P<0.001); day 7, 14.8±6.3 versus 12.0±4.9 mm Hg (P=0.001), but no difference was observed after the second week (P=0.659 to 0.753). The incidence of transient hypotony was higher in S group (20.4%) than the R group (9.1%) (P=0.046); hypotony recovered in 80.8% (21/26) within 1 week. There was no difference in the occurrence of shallow chamber, choroidal detachment, macular edema, additional surgery, or hyphema (P=0.56 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The technique of releasable sutures for trabeculectomy used in this study did not demonstrate significant advantages over standard trabeculectomy. Releasable sutures were associated with some decrease in visual acuity and increase in postoperative complaints. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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