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Liu Z.,Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital | Liu Z.,Peking University | Tang H.-L.,Peking University | Zhai S.-D.,Peking University
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Aromatase inhibitors in ovulation induction for women with unexplained infertility. Methods Te databases such as CNKI (1994 to June 2011), WanFang Data (1982 to June 2011), PubMed (1966 to June 2011) and Te Cochrane Library (Issue 6, 2011) were searched to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled trials (quasi-RCTs) for the comparison between aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and clomiphene citrate (CC). Te quality of the retrieved trials was critically appraised and meta-analyses were conducted using RevMan 5.0.1 software. Results Nine studies were included; all of them were published in English. The results of meta-analyses showed there were no significant differences between AIs and CC in the pregnancy rate (RR=1.02, 95%CI 0.71 to 1.47), miscarriage rate (RR=1.00 95%CI 0.61 to 1.63), multiple pregnancy rate (RD= -0.02, 95%CI -0.07 to 0.03), and incidence rate of adverse events (RD=0.00, 95%CI -0.01 to 0.01); there were still no significant differences between the AIs+gonadotropin (Gn) group and the CC+Gn group in the pregnancy rate (RR=0.98, 95%CI 0.68 to 1.42), miscarriage rate (RR=1.23, 95%CI 0.70 to 2.15), multiple pregnancy rate (RD=0.00, 95%CI -0.10 to 0.10), and incidence rate of adverse events (RD=0.00, 95%CI -0.10 to 0.01). Conclusion Whether aromatase inhibitors can replace clomiphene citrate in ovulation induction for women with unexplained infertility is still an issue that has to be identified by performing well-designed large scale RCTs with longer follow-up duration. © 2011 Editorial Department of Chinese Evidence-Based Medicine. Source

Pan L.,Capital Medical University | Han L.-L.,Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital | Tao L.-X.,Capital Medical University | Zhou T.,Capital Medical University | And 7 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Objectives: Although there are many reports about the risk of breast cancer, few have reported clinical factors including history of breast-related or other diseases that affect the prevalence of breast cancer. This study explores these risk factors for breast cancer cases reported in Beijing in 2009. Materials and Methods: Data were derived from a Beijing breast cancer screening performed in 2009, of 568,000 women, from 16 districts of Beijing, all aged between 40 and 60 years. In this study, multilevel statistical modeling was used to identify clinical factors that affect the prevalence of breast cancer and to provide more reliable evidence for clinical diagnostics by using screening data. Results and Conclusion: Those women who had organ transplants, compared with those with none, were associated with breast cancer with an odds ratio (OR) = 65.352 [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.488-503.165] and those with solid breast mass compared with none had OR = 1.384 (95% CI: 1.022-1.873). Malignant tendency was strongly associated with increased risk of breast cancer, OR = 207.999(95% CI: 151.950-284.721). The risk of breast cancer increased with age, OR1 = 2.759 (95% CI: 1.837-4.144, 56-60 vs. 40-45), OR2 = 2.047 (95% CI: 1.394-3.077, 51-55 vs. 40-45), OR3 = 1.668 (95% CI: 1.145-2.431). Normal results of B ultrasonic examination show a lower risk among participants, OR= 0.136 (95% CI: 0.085-0.218). Those women with ductal papilloma compared with none were associated with breast cancer, OR=6.524 (95% CI: 1.871-22.746). Therefore, this study suggests that clinical doctors should pay attention to these high-risk factors. Source

Li Y.,Peking University | Li Y.,Shenyang University | Hong W.X.,Stanford University | Xu X.,Shenyang University | And 8 more authors.
Differentiation | Year: 2013

Human embryonic germ cells (hEGCs) are a valuable and underutilized source of pluripotent stem cells. Unlike embryonic stem cells, which have been extensively studied, little is known about the factors that regulate hEGC derivation and maintenance. This study demonstrates for the first time a central role for selective activation of PDGFR signaling in the derivation and maintenance of pluripotency in hEGCs. In the study, hEGCs were found to express PDGF receptor α at high levels compared to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). PDGF significantly improved formation of alkaline phosphatase (AP) positive hEGC colonies. We subsequently determined that PDGF activates the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway as phosphorylation of AKT was up-regulated in response to PDGF. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K signaling using small molecular inhibitor LY294002 led to significantly decreased AP positive hEGC colony formation whereas inhibition of MAPK pathway using U0126 had a negligible effect. We established a primary mechanism for PDGF mediated derivation and maintenance of hEGCs by demonstrating that OCT4 was upregulated and PTEN was suppressed in a dose dependent manner in response to PDGF. © 2014 International Society of Differentiation. Source

Ding C.,CAS Institute of Chemistry | Zhao L.,CAS Institute of Chemistry | Liu F.,CAS Institute of Chemistry | Cheng J.,China Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2010

Injectable hydrogels with pH and temperature triggered drug release capability were synthesized based on biocompatible glycol chitosan and benzaldehyde-capped poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEO-PPO-PEO). Aqueous solutions of the above polymers formed hydrogel under physiological conditions, allowing a desirable injectability, through the formation covalent benzoic-imine bond with pH and temperature changes. Rheological characterization demonstrated that the gelation rate and the moduli of the hydrogels were able to be tuned with chemical composition as well as pH and temperature of the polymer solution. Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs could be incorporated inside the hydrogel through the in situ gel forming process and undergo a controlled release by altering pH or temperature. In vivo tests proved the formation and biocompatibility of the hydrogel in rat model. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Zhu W.-W.,Peking University | Fan L.,Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital | Yang H.-X.,Peking University | Kong L.-Y.,Peking University | And 15 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

Objective-To evaluate the usefulness of a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at 24-28 weeks' gestation to screen for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Research design and methods-The medical records and results of a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) of 24,854 pregnant women without known pre-GDM attending prenatal clinics in 15 hospitals in China were examined. ResultsFPG cutoff value of 5.1 mmol/L identified 3,149 (12.1%) pregnant women with GDM. FPG cutoff value of 4.4 mmol/L ruled out GDM in 15,369 (38.2%) women. With use of this cutoff point, 12.2% of patients with mild GDM will be missed. The positive predictive value is 0.322, and the negative predictive value is 0.928. Conclusions-FPG at 24-28 weeks' gestation could be used as a screening test to identify GDM patients in low-resource regions. Women with an FPG between ≥4.4 and #5.0 mmol/L would require a 75-g OGTT to diagnose GDM. This would help to avoid approximately one-half (50.3%) of the formal 75-g OGTTs in China. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

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