Beijing Normal University , colloqiually known as 北师大 or Beishida, is a public research university located in Beijing with strong emphasis on basic disciplines of humanities and science. It is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in China.A normal school referred to an institution that aimed to train school teachers in the early twentieth century, and this terminology is preserved in the official names of such institutions in China. Wikipedia.
Gilbert C.,Rockefeller University |
Li W.,Beijing Normal University
Neuron | Year: 2012
The visual cortex has the capacity for experience-dependent change, or cortical plasticity, that is retained throughout life. Plasticity is invoked for encoding information during perceptual learning, by internally representing the regularities of the visual environment, which is useful for facilitating intermediate-level vision-contour integration and surface segmentation. The same mechanisms have adaptive value for functional recovery after CNS damage, such as that associated with stroke or neurodegenerative disease. A common feature to plasticity in primary visual cortex (V1) is an association field that links contour elements across the visual field. The circuitry underlying the association field includes a plexus of long-range horizontal connections formed by cortical pyramidal cells. These connections undergo rapid and exuberant sprouting and pruning in response to removal of sensory input, which can account for the topographic reorganization following retinal lesions. Similar alterations in cortical circuitry may be involved in perceptual learning, and the changes observed in V1 may be representative of how learned information is encoded throughout the cerebral cortex.
Gilbert C.D.,Rockefeller University |
Li W.,Beijing Normal University
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2013
Re-entrant or feedback pathways between cortical areas carry rich and varied information about behavioural context, including attention, expectation, perceptual tasks, working memory and motor commands. Neurons receiving such inputs effectively function as adaptive processors that are able to assume different functional states according to the task being executed. Recent data suggest that the selection of particular inputs, representing different components of an association field, enable neurons to take on different functional roles. In this Review, we discuss the various top-down influences exerted on the visual cortical pathways and highlight the dynamic nature of the receptive field, which allows neurons to carry information that is relevant to the current perceptual demands. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Siegler R.S.,Carnegie Mellon University |
Siegler R.S.,Beijing Normal University
Developmental Science | Year: 2016
The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: (1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic numbers, (2) connecting small symbolic numbers to their non-symbolic referents, (3) extending understanding from smaller to larger whole numbers, and (4) accurately representing the magnitudes of rational numbers. The present review identifies substantial commonalities, as well as differences, in these four aspects of numerical development. With both whole and rational numbers, numerical magnitude knowledge is concurrently correlated with, longitudinally predictive of, and causally related to multiple aspects of mathematical understanding, including arithmetic and overall math achievement. Moreover, interventions focused on increasing numerical magnitude knowledge often generalize to other aspects of mathematics. The cognitive processes of association and analogy seem to play especially large roles in this development. Thus, acquisition of numerical magnitude knowledge can be seen as the common core of numerical development. Acquisition of increasingly precise representations of the magnitudes of an increasing range of numbers is a unifying theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood. The acquisitions involve representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic numbers, connecting small symbolic numbers to their non-symbolic referents, extending understanding from smaller to larger whole numbers, and accurately representing the magnitudes of rational numbers. The precision of children's knowledge of numerical magnitudes is correlated with, predictive of, and causally related to a variety of important outcomes, including arithmetic learning. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Li Z.,Beijing Normal University
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience | Year: 2014
This article reviews advances in decoding methods for brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). Recent work has focused on practical considerations for future clinical deployment of prosthetics. This review is organized by open questions in the field such as what variables to decode, how to design neural tuning models, which neurons to select, how to design models of desired actions, how to learn decoder parameters during prosthetic operation, and how to adapt to changes in neural signals and neural tuning. The concluding discussion highlights the need to design and test decoders within the context of their expected use and the need to answer the question of how much control accuracy is good enough for a prosthetic. © 2014 Li.
Gong Q.,University of Sichuan |
Gong Q.,Yale University |
He Y.,Beijing Normal University
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2015
Depression is a multifactorial disorder with clinically heterogeneous features involving disturbances of mood and cognitive function. Noninvasive neuroimaging studies have provided rich evidence that these behavioral deficits in depression are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in specific regions and connections. Recent advances in brain connectomics through the use of graph theory highlight disrupted topological organization of large-scale functional and structural brain networks in depression, involving global topology (e.g., local clustering, shortest-path lengths, and global and local efficiencies), modular structure, and network hubs. These system-level disruptions show important correlates with genetic and environmental factors, which provide an integrative perspective on mood and cognitive deficits in depressive syndrome. Moreover, research suggests that the pathologic networks associated with depression represent potentially valuable biomarkers for early detection of this disorder and they are likely to be regulated and recalibrated by using pharmacologic, psychological, and brain stimulation therapies. These connectome-based imaging studies present new opportunities to reconceptualize the pathogenesis of depression, improve our knowledge of the biological mechanisms of therapeutic effects, and identify appropriate stimulation targets to optimize the clinical response in depression treatment. Here, we summarize the current findings and historical understanding of structural and functional connectomes in depression, focusing on graph analyses of depressive brain networks. We also consider methodological factors such as sample heterogeneity and poor test-retest reliability of recordings due to physiological, head motion, and imaging artifacts to discuss result inconsistencies among studies. We conclude with suggestions for future research directions on the emerging field of imaging connectomics in depression. © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry.
Deng F.-G.,Beijing Normal University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012
We propose an optimal nonlocal entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for multiphoton systems in a partially entangled pure state, resorting to the projection measurement on an additional photon. One party in quantum communication first performs a parity-check measurement on her photon in an N-photon system and an additional photon, and then she projects the additional photon into an orthogonal Hilbert space for dividing the original N-photon systems into two groups. In the first group, the N parties will obtain a subset of N-photon systems in a maximally entangled state. In the second group, they will obtain some less-entangled N-photon systems which are the resource for the entanglement concentration in the next round. By iterating the entanglement concentration process several times, the present ECP has the maximal success probability, which is just equivalent to the entanglement of the partially entangled state. That is, this ECP is an optimal one. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Wang K.,Beijing Normal University |
Dickinson R.E.,University of Texas at Austin
Reviews of Geophysics | Year: 2012
This review surveys the basic theories, observational methods, satellite algorithms, and land surface models for terrestrial evapotranspiration, E (or E, i.e., latent heat flux), including a long-term variability and trends perspective. The basic theories used to estimate E are the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST), the Bowen ratio method, and the Penman-Monteith equation. The latter two theoretical expressions combine MOST with surface energy balance. Estimates of E can differ substantially between these three approaches because of their use of different input data. Surface and satellite-based measurement systems can provide accurate estimates of diurnal, daily, and annual variability of E. But their estimation of longer time variability is largely not established. A reasonable estimate of E as a global mean can be obtained from a surface water budget method, but its regional distribution is still rather uncertain. Current land surface models provide widely different ratios of the transpiration by vegetation to total E. This source of uncertainty therefore limits the capability of models to provide the sensitivities of E to precipitation deficits and land cover change. © 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.
Patel D.J.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Wang Z.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Wang Z.,Beijing Normal University
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2013
This review focuses on a structure-based analysis of histone posttranslational modification (PTM) readout, where the PTMs serve as docking sites for reader modules as part of larger complexes displaying chromatin modifier and remodeling activities, with the capacity to alter chromatin architecture and templated processes. Individual topics addressed include the diversity of reader-binding pocket architectures and common principles underlying readout of methyl-lysine and methyl-arginine marks, their unmodified counterparts, as well as acetyl-lysine and phosphoserine marks. The review also discusses the impact of multivalent readout of combinations of PTMs localized at specific genomic sites by linked binding modules on processes ranging from gene transcription to repair. Additional topics include cross talk between histone PTMs, histone mimics, epigenetic-based diseases, and drug-based therapeutic intervention. The review ends by highlighting new initiatives and advances, as well as future challenges, toward the promise of enhancing our structural and mechanistic understanding of the readout of histone PTMs at the nucleosomal level. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Peng K.-Q.,Beijing Normal University |
Lee S.-T.,City University of Hong Kong
Advanced Materials | Year: 2011
Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells. Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. This article reviews recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Deng F.-G.,Beijing Normal University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011
We present two economical one-step error-correction protocols for multipartite polarization-entangled systems in a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. One uses spatial entanglement to correct errors in the polarization entanglement of an N-photon system, resorting to linear optical elements. The other uses frequency entanglement to correct errors in the polarization entanglement of an N-photon system. The parties in quantum communication can obtain a maximally entangled state from each N-photon system transmitted with one step in these two protocols, and both of their success probabilities are 100%, in principle. That is, they both work in a deterministic way, and they do not largely consume the less-entangled photon systems, which is far different from conventional multipartite entanglement purification schemes. These features may make these two protocols more useful for practical applications in long-distance quantum communication. © 2011 American Physical Society.