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Lockley M.G.,University of Colorado at Denver | Li J.,Beijing Natural History Museum | Matsukawa M.,Tokyo Gakugei University | Li R.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Cretaceous Research | Year: 2012

The new bird track Tatarornipes chabuensis ichnogen et. ichnosp nov. is described from the Lower Cretaceous Jingchuan Formation of Inner Mongolia. This ichnospecies is abundant in the well-studied Chabu area of central Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol). In addition to the type locality (Chabu site 4), large samples are known from Chabu sites 1, 5 and 15, and the ichnogenus also occurs in the Cretaceous of Shandong Province. More than 50 well-preserved, measured tracks and representative trackways from five samples are illustrated to show diagnostic features and modifications attributable to preservation. The ichnospecies, which is characterized by robust digits that are unusually wide proximally, is easily distinguished from smaller Cretaceous avian ichnotaxa such as Koreanaornis and Aquatilavipes, which are smaller and more gracile in appearance. Tatarornipes also reveals a distinctive trackway pattern often characterized by long steps and minimal pes rotation. This ichnogenus is typically found in fluvio-lacustrine settings in association with saurischian (theropod and sauropod) dominated footprint assemblages. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Chiappe L.M.,Dinosaur Institute | Bo Z.,Dalian Natural History Museum | O'Connor J.K.,Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthroplogy | Chunling G.,Dalian Natural History Museum | And 6 more authors.
PeerJ | Year: 2014

The discovery of Hongshanornis longicresta, a small ornithuromorph bird with unusually long hindlimb proportions, was followed by the discovery of two closely related species, Longicrusavis houi and Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis. Together forming the Hongshanornithidae, these species reveal important information about the early diversity and morphological specialization of ornithuromorphs, the clade that contains all living birds. Here we report on a new specimen (DNHM D2945/6) referable toHongshanornis longicresta that contributes significant information to better understand the morphology, trophic ecology, and aerodynamics of this species, as well as the taxonomy of the Hongshanornithidae. Most notable are the wellpreserved wings and feathered tail of DNHM D2945/6, which afford an accurate reconstruction of aerodynamic parameters indicating that as early as 125 million years ago, basal ornithuromorphs had evolved aerodynamic surfaces comparable in size and design to those of many modern birds, and flight modes alike to those of some small living birds. © 2014 Chiappe et al.

Xing L.,China University of Geosciences | Peng G.,Zigong Dinosaur Museum | Marty D.,Office de la Culture Paleontologie A16 | Ye Y.,Zigong Dinosaur Museum | And 5 more authors.
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica | Year: 2014

The Longguan dinosaur tracksite in the Sichuan Basin (China) is described. It is located in the uppermost part of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation and displays a single, unusual trackway consisting of 19 deeply impressed pes imprints. All tracks have suffered from erosion over many years of exposure, but they still reveal interesting details such as conspicuous elongated grooves, interpreted here as toe and claw drag marks. The trackmaker, a medium-sized archosaur, was walking in a thick and relatively soft layer of sand. The elongated, oval shape of the footprints resembles the ichnogenus Eosauropus from North America and Europe, assigned to facultative bipedal sauropodomorphs. The Chinese track differs by inward rotation of the footprints toward the midline, whereas in Eosauropus, these are turned strictly outward. Other ichnotaxa and possible trackmakers are discussed, but presently, a distinct assignment cannot be given. The Longguan trackway enlarges the scarce footprint record from the Triassic of China. © 2014 L. Xing et al.

Xing L.,China University of Geosciences | Buckley L.G.,Peace Region Palaeontology Research Center | Lockley M.G.,University of Colorado at Denver | Zhang J.,China University of Geosciences | And 5 more authors.
Cretaceous Research | Year: 2016

There are a growing number of Early Cretaceous avian tracks and trackways from around the world, with Asia (China and Korea) having the largest reported number and diversity of Mesozoic avian traces to date, and these new discoveries are increasing the Early Cretaceous avian ichnodivesrity of Laurasia. Here we report on a new Lower Cretaceous avian track locality in the Guanshan area, Yongjing County, Gansu Province, northwest China, and on a novel ichnospecies of Koreanaornis, Koreanaornis lii ichnosp. nov. Koreananornis lii is distinct from other Koreanaornipodidae in that it possesses a consistently wider digit divarication than previously described tridactyl tracks, and possess a short, small, posteromedially oriented hallux that displays a different orientation than that seen in Koreanaornis hamanensis. The lack of linear and angular data reported for digit I traces of many avian ichnotaxa has the potential to give misleading results in multivariate statistical analyses. Also, the wide divarication of Koreanaornis lii causes the ichnotaxon to not group with other Koreanornipodidae in multivariate analyses, but with Ignotornidae. Despite the results of the analyses, K. lii is morphologically distinct from these ichnotaxa. The results demonstrate that relying solely on multivariate statistical analyses without careful examination of footprint morphology will result in erroneous ichnospecies groupings. While new vertebrate ichnotaxa discoveries from Asia may support the hypotheses of the presence of a unique and endemic Asian vertebrate ichnofauna during the Cretaceous, the recent discovery of skeletal remains interpreted to be of a volant wading bird from the Early Cretaceous, and recent reports of tracks from volant avians, could suggest that flighted avians of the shore- and wading bird ecotypes could have had a Laurasian-wide distribution during the Early Cretaceous. However, strong convergence in foot morphology of shore- and wading birds suggests that avian ichnotaxa found in both present-day Asia and North America may have been made by birds endemic to eastern and western Laurasia during the Early Cretaceous. © 2016.

Wang W.,Beijing Forestry University | He L.,Beijing Forestry University | He L.,Xinjiang Normal University | Li L.,Beijing Natural History Museum | And 5 more authors.
Folia Zoologica | Year: 2015

We studied feeding intake and food selection of nine captive forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) offered 17 species of plants in China. We also determined nutrient characteristics related to plant quality to assess their effect on food selection. Results indicated that forest musk deer exhibited positive selectivity for four species of plants (M. azedarach, M. baccata, K. japonica and C. orbiculatus) and negative selectivity for the remainder. Two plant species with the highest selectivity values accounted for 47.39 % of total food intake; thus, forest musk deer exhibited the strongest preference for these species. Food intake was positively correlated with feeding frequency and duration (r = 0.764, p < 0.005; r = 0.843, p < 0.005) but was not correlated with sniffing frequency or duration. However, olfaction did play an important role in food recognition by the deer. Pearson correlation analysis (data were log10 transformed) indicated that leaf intake was positively correlated with crude protein content (r = 0.708, p = 0.001) and negatively correlated with crude fiber content (r = -0.811, p < 0.001) and ash content (r = -0.496, p = 0.043). In addition, forest musk deer preferred tannin-rich plants with high protein and low fiber. Food intake was also positively correlated with potassium content (r = 0.672, p < 0.005). Our results suggest that forest musk deer is able to positively select high quality food (high protein content) and avoid low quality food (high fiber content). However, the fact that musk deer also prefer tannin-rich food requires further research to gain deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms in the food selection of forest musk deer. © 2015, Czech Academy of Sciences All Rights Reserved.

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