Beijing Municipal Solid Waste and Chemical Management Center

Beijing, China

Beijing Municipal Solid Waste and Chemical Management Center

Beijing, China

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Xue Y.-F.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Xue Y.-F.,Beijing Normal University | Yan J.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Tian H.-Z.,Beijing Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2015

Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) such as exhaust particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), mercury (Hg)and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDD/Fs) are emitted by the process of cremation and the burning of oblation. Risks to health posed by emissions of hazardous air pollutants from crematories are emerging concerns. Through field investigation and data collection, we obtained the related activity levels and monitored the concentrations of air pollutants from typical cremators, so as to better understand the current pollutants emission levels for crematory. Using the emission factor method, we calculated the emission inventory of HAPs for crematory of Beijing in 2012 and quantified the range of uncertainty. Using atmospheric diffusion model ADMS, we evaluated the influence of crematories on the surrounding environment, and identified the characteristics of air pollution. The results showed that: for the cremators installed with flue gas purification system, the emission concentration of exhaust PM was rather low, and the CO emission concentration fluctuated greatly. However, relative high emission concentrations of PCDD/Fs were detected mainly due to insufficient combustion. Exhaust PM, CO, SO2, NOx, Hg and PCDD/Fs emitted by crematory of Beijing in 2012 were estimated at about 11.5 tons, 41.25 tons, 2.34 tons, 7.65 tons, 13.76 kg and 0.88 g, respectively; According to the results of dispersion model simulation, the concentration contributions of exhaust PM, CO, SO2, NOx, Hg, PCDD/Fs from crematories were 0.059 47 μg·m-3, 0.200 9 μg·m-3 and 0.012 6 μg·m-3, 0.036 67 μg·m-3 and 0.062 47 pg·m-3, 0.004 213 pg·m-3, respectively. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Gao J.,Tsinghua University | Gao J.,Beijing Municipal Solid Waste and Chemical Management Center | Huang J.,Tsinghua University | Chen W.,Tsinghua University | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering | Year: 2016

The fate and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has received great attention during the last decade. Numerous data concerning concentrations in the water phase can be found in the literature, however corresponding data from sludge as well as associated mass balance calculations are very limited. In the present study, the adsorbed and dissolved concentrations of 9 PPCPs were investigated in each unit of a WWTP in Beijing, China. Based on the calculation of mass balance, the relative mass distribution and removal efficiency of each target compound was obtained at each process. The amount of PPCPs entering into the WWTP ranged from 12 g·d–1 to 3848 g·d–1. Five target compounds (caffeine, chloramphenicol, bezafibrate, clofibric acid, and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) were effectively removed, with rates of 57%–100%. Negative removal efficiencies were obtained for sulpiride, metoprolol, nalidixic acid, and carbamazepine, ranging from −19% to −79%. PPCPs mainly existed in dissolved form (≥92%) in both the raw influent and the final effluent. The sludge cake carried a much lower amount of PPCPs (17 g·d–1) compared with the discharged effluent (402 g·d–1). In A2/O treatment tanks, the anaerobic and anoxic tanks showed good performance for PPCPs removal, and the amount of adsorbed PPCPs was increased. The results reveal that both the dissolved and the adsorbed phases should be considered when assessing the removal capacity of each A2/O tank. © 2016 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Jiang L.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Jiang L.,Beijing Key Laboratory for Risk Modeling and Remediation of Contaminated Sites | Zhong M.-S.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Zhong M.-S.,Beijing Key Laboratory for Risk Modeling and Remediation of Contaminated Sites | And 10 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2013

The procedures of implementing tiered health risk assessment approach were introduced in detail, and took a large-scale site polluted by benzene in Beijing as an example, the difference on the remediation target of benzene in soil, as well as the corresponding soil remediation volume and costs, were compared. The results indicate that the benzene concentration in soil within 1.5 m in depth and the one below should be remediated to 0.26 mg·kg-1 and 0.15 mg·kg-1, respectively, in order to keep the cumulative carcinogenic health risk below 1×10-6 based on tiered II assessment. However, according to tiered III assessment result, which is based on the benzene in soil gas within the contaminated areas in the investigated site, the soil in the corresponding depth should only be remediated to 2.6 mg·kg-1 and 1.5 mg·kg-1, respectively. That means the soil remediation volume delimited on tiered III assessment result is less than the one on tiered II by 139537 m3 and the corresponding remediation costs will be reduced by 57 million Yuan, meaning the enormous economic benefits compared to the costs (around 100 thousands Yuan) spent to carry out tiered III assessment in the site.


Jiang L.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Jiang L.,National Engineering Research Center for Urban Environmental Pollution Control | Jiang L.,Beijing Key Laboratory for Risk Modeling and Remediation of Contaminated Sites | Zhang L.-N.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | And 15 more authors.
Research of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2013

Two statistical methods, t-test analysis using replicate samples and upper confidence limit (UCL), were applied in evaluation of attainment of cleanup standards in a site remediation contaminated by the heavy metal. The results showed that the site did not reach the remediation goals by eight arsenic samples and one mercury sample exceeding the cleanup standards, if the strict no exceedance rule is applied. The t-test analysis using replicate samples further indicated that exceedance of As content in S48 soil sample and Hg content in S1 soil sample were contributed by the field sampling or laboratory errors, hence Hg content meet the cleanup. The 95% upper confidence limits of As and Hg were respectively calculated as 23.81 and 5.83 mg/kg, which were below the remediation goals. However, the S26 surrounding could not reach the remediation goals since As content in S26 soil sample was two times greater than the cleanup standard. The results are listed as follows: 1) The potential saving in remediation cost can reach by using statistical analysis in evaluation of attainment of cleanup standards for contaminated site remediation. 2) The traditional one by one observation comparison method is appropriate for small sites with limited samples. T-test analysis using replicate samples can be used for evaluating errors possible contributed from laboratory and filed sampling. 3) Upper confidence limit (UCL) can be applied to verify the attainment of the cleanup standard for large sites with more samples in conjunction with specific guidelines: 95%UCL is less than the remediation goals; the maximum concentrations not more than 2 times of the cleanup standard; exceedance area is discontinuous.


Jiang L.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Jiang L.,National Engineering Research Center for Urban Environmental Pollution Control | Zhong M.-S.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Zhong M.-S.,National Engineering Research Center for Urban Environmental Pollution Control | And 11 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2012

The carcinogenic risk originated from benzene in contaminated groundwater of a large-scale coke plant in Beijing was analyzed and assessed for different land use zones according to the site redevelopment plan. The results revealed that indoor vapor inhalation was the key exposure pathway for all the three zones. The carcinogenic risk in zone A as commercial area was 6.37×10-8, below the maximum allowable level (1.0×10-6), but was 2.20×10-4 in zone B as industrial park and 7.49×10-5 in zone C as residential/commercial area, both beyond the acceptable level. Further, the remediation target for benzene was calculated at 118 μg·L-1 and the corresponding remediation area was contoured to be 165 000 m2.Given the high permeability of the aquifer and the excellent volatility of benzene, air-sparging with a combination of engineering control measure was recommended to mitigate the risk of the groundwater contamination.


Zhong M.-S.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Peng C.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Jiang L.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Han D.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | And 3 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2015

Unified bioaccessibility model (UBM) was used to measure cadmium (Cd) bioaccessibility of 12 soils with different physic-chemical properties and concentrations from Hunan, Guangxi and Dalian. The results revealed that the bioaccessibility of Cd in stomach was 12.24%~81.10% with the average value being 53.60% while in intestine it was 2.01%~43.30% with the average value being 19.74%. The bioaccessible concentration in stomach correlated well with total Cd (TCd) (P<0.000, n=12) and total Mn (TMn) (P=0.04, n=12) in soils while in intestine the most significant controlling factor was TCd (P<0.001, n=12), followed by bioaccessible concentration in stomach (P<0.001, n=12) and TMn (P=0.05, n=12). A model regressed based on TCd and total phosphate (TP) can predict the bioaccessible concentration in stomach very well with R2 being 0.992, and the bioaccessible concentration in intestine can be predicted precisely using a model regressed based on bioaccessible concentration in stomach and soil pH with R2being 0.999. When the bioaccessibility in stomach was considered the soil screening values for residential and industrial was 1.8 (calculated based on the average bioaccessibility) and 1.2 (calculated based on the maximal bioaccessibility) times the values without considering Cd bioaccessibility while the screening levels were 5.0 (calculated based on the average bioaccessibility) and 2.3 (calculated based on the maximal bioaccessibility) times the values when bioaccessibility in intestine was taken into account. ©, 2015, Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science. All right reserved.


Zhong M.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Jiang L.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Zhang L.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | Xia T.,Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection | And 3 more authors.
Research of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2015

Health risk assessment, in combination with contamination investigation, was applied in screening of risk management strategies for a site contaminated by VOCs. The results revealed that the soil was contaminated by chloroform, dichloromethane and benzene as deep as 25.8 m below ground level. Distinct changes in the vertical profiles of the three contaminants were observed; the most contaminated soil was within the depth of 15.0 m. Health risk assessment was carried out based on the conservative generic conceptual model that the site would be redeveloped as a residential area. The assessment revealed that the carcinogenic risks of chloroform, dichloromethane and benzene were 6.0×10-2, 2.9×10-4 and 7.4×10-5, respectively, all far above the acceptable level of 1.0×10-6. To meet the acceptable risk level, the corresponding remediation targets of the three contaminants were 0.22 mg/kg, 12.00 mg/kg and 0.64 mg/kg, respectively. If the removal of all contaminated soil exceeding the remediation targets (Strategy One) was chosen as the risk management strategy for the site, soil as deep as 24.0 m, with a total volume of 334, 000 m3, should be remediated. By considering the vertical distributions of the three contaminants and basement development plans of future buildings, removal of heavy contaminated soil within 15.0 m depth in combination with engineering control measures on the remaining contaminated soil was another potential alternative strategy (Strategy Two). The risk assessment of Strategy Two revealed that the residual health risk of chloroform was 8.3×10-8, even though concentrations of some samples below 15.0 m were still above the remediation targets derived in Strategy One. Further probabilistic risk assessment indicated that the residual risk corresponding to the value of 99.5% cumulative percentile was 1.06×10-7, which means that the strategy was conservative enough in protecting the health of future residents, and remediated soil volume would be reduced by 64, 000 m3. Therefore, Strategy Two was preferred due to the reduction of remediation cost and less environmental impact. ©, 2015, Editorial department of Molecular Catalysis. All right reserved.

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