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Xu M.,Beijing Normal University | Xu M.,Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences | Wu S.,Beijing Normal University | Xu F.,Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management | Year: 2014

Due to the impact of human activities, continuing degradation of lake ecosystems and loss of aquatic biodiversity, symptoms of ecosystem damages are widespread, and many efforts have been made in improving ecological conditions through diverse lake ecological restoration ways. However, agreement on what constitutes a successful restoration project continues to be lacking, and we need well-accepted criteria for judging ecological success. In this paper, detailed comparative lake health assessments using coupled lake models were conducted to judge ecological restoration effects of Baiyangdian Lake. We developed an approach to guide restoration of a degraded wetland through construction of two environmental models: hydrodynamics and water quality model as well as compartmental ecological models. Two ecological restoration scenarioswatershed water transfer and watershed pollution load control, were tested. Through correlation analysis and principal component analysis, 10 health evaluation indices were selected indexes from three aspects (structure, function and system) to construct health evaluation system of Baiyangdian Lake. Simulating and assessments results showed that watershed water transfer could improve ecological health status of Baiyangdian Lake more effectively compared with watershed pollution load control, and water quality of watershed water transfer is also an important influence factor on ecological health status. Watershed pollution load control is only has restoration effect on the water area near river entrance. For hydrodynamic index, water level in two watershed water transfer scenarios increased significantly, and water quality was also improved a lot. In watershed pollution load control scenario, water quality improved only in water area near river entrance. For water ecological index, zooplankton biomass in two watershed water transfer scenarios increased significantly and phytoplankton biomass increased slightly compared with that in benchmark scenario. Zooplankton biomass in watershed pollution load control scenarios increased not much compared with that inbenchmark scenario, and phytoplankton biomass had no obvious change, either. Aquatic plant biomass in all scenarios basically had the same variation. The proposed models and comparative lake health assessments we established show some promising applications as middle-scale or largescale lake management tools for ecological restoration such as pollution load control and ecological water transfer. These tools quantify the implications of proposed future water management decisions. © 2014 L & H Scientific Publishing, LLC. All rights reserved.

Xu F.,Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection | Xu F.,Beijing Normal University | Zhao Y.,Beijing Normal University
Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management | Year: 2014

The decline of water quality of the inflow river has direct negative impact on the ecological conditions of lake ecosystem. The design of subsurface wetlands was considered to be an effective method for improving the water quality of inflow rivers, especially reducing the excessive nutrients to alleviate eutrophication. A subsurface wetland was designed by applying the wetland model Subwet 2.0 for treating the polluted inflow river- Fu River of Baiyangdian Lake. The simulation scenarios concerning the changes of wetland area were designed to find out the treatment effect of the subsurface wetland. The variation trends of the effluent concentrations of BOD5, ammonium, total nitrogen and total phosphorus for the scenarios had been obtained. The area and volume of the wetland which are the core design parameters have been determined through comparing the reduction percentages of the main pollutants under different design scenarios. The results showed that the simulation results in scenario 2 can simultaneously satisfy the conditions that the efficiencies of removal of total nitrogen and total phosphorus should reach to 90% in the Fu River and meanwhile less time, which is considered as the optimal design scheme. The area and volume should be set as 875m2 and 525m3 to make the water quality standard of Fu River change from class V to class III, which could greatly control the eutrophication of Baiyangdian Lake. The method of wetland design based on model could reduce the uncertainties of traditional wetland design method and facilitate the water quality improvement of aquatic ecosystems. © 2014 L and H Scientific Publishing, LLC. All rights reserved.

Xiong Y.,China University of Geosciences | Xiong Y.,Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection | Wang Q.,Xinjiang Akesu Water Group | Song Y.-H.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | And 2 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2013

In order to strengthen the sludge hydrolysis and improve effluent carbon source, the structure of currently existing hydrolysis reactor was reformed. The new process combined separation of suspended solids in influent and hydrolysis of settled sludge. Experimental results show that the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, the average SS/BOD5 ratio of effluent was dropped to 0.4, far less than that of the influent ratios; SCOD/COD and COD0.45~5/COD ratio of the effluent increased by 35.4% and 17.7%, but the COD>100/COD ratio reduced by 53.2%; BOD5/TN ratio increased from 3.7 to 4.7 and the BOD5/TP ratio from 23.8 to 36.4. The improvement of effluent carbon source was helpful for nitrogen and phosphorus removal in follow-up process. Meanwhile, the hydrolytic rate of sludge was up to 51.9%, realizing the reduction and resource-regeneration.

Liang K.-Q.,Tsinghua University | Liang K.-Q.,China University of Mining and Technology | Liang K.-Q.,Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection | Yan Z.,China University of Mining and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Zhongguo Kuangye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of China University of Mining and Technology | Year: 2011

Problems in biogas slurry of biogas project, such as its large amount, difficulties in disposal, storage, transport and low nutrients were analyzed in this paper, and the reverse osmosis technology concentrating the biogas slurry was put forward accordingly. Through setting up the pilot scale reverse osmosis technology concentrating equipment, relationships among membrane flux, pressure, the running time and electrical conductivity were analyzed based on the batch experiments and continuous experiments, the parameters including the optimal operating pressure, the best concentrating ratio of biogas slurry and wash period in continuous operation were studied. On the basis of them, the concentration effect and economic feasibility of biogas slurry were assessed. The results show that the reverse osmosis system established by the study for concentration of biogas slurry is practicable. Compared to the original biogas slurry, the removal rate of NH3-N, COD and conductivity of permeate water reaches up to more than 90% which could meet the needs of slurry mixing at the beginning of biogas project. Besides, the concentrated slurry of which volume is only 20%-25% of the original slurry while its nutriments have increased 4-5 times. Therefore, the concentrated slurry could be widely used in agriculture in which way the high-value will be achieved.

Wang Y.-G.,Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection | Wang Y.-G.,National Engineering Research Center for Urban Environmental Pollution Control | Wang X.,Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection | Wang X.,National Engineering Research Center for Urban Environmental Pollution Control | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2015

IPAT model and its variants could describe the quantitative relationships between human driving force and the environmental pressure, benefit fundamental understanding of the dynamics of coupled human and natural systems, and are regarded as effective tools in solving the environmental problems caused by the social and economic development. In this paper, the fundamental concepts of IPAT model and its variants were discussed including definitions, historical developments and the hot issues in their applications. The future research trends were put forward aiming to further expand the use of IPAT models in the sustainable development of environment and social decision-making. ©, 2015, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. All right reserved.

Liang K.,Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection | Zhou J.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Xiong Y.,Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection | Tao T.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Huazhong Keji Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Natural Science Edition) | Year: 2012

Taking urban sewage of low C/N ratio as a treatment object in a productive scale test, different efficiency on nitrogen removal of the hydrolysis-A/O (anoxic-oxic) process at different nitrification liquid-reflux-ratio was studied. Simultaneously, the influence of nitrification liquid-reflux-ratio on nitrogen removal efficiency was discussed as the relative ratio of removal quantities was used for the evaluation. Results show that hydrolysis-A/O process has high removal efficiency of COD, TN, NH4 +-N, TP, and the average removing efficiency is 84.0%, 64.2%, 98.2% and 73.2% respectively. Apart from TP and SS, the A standard of GB18918-2002 is reached by other index. Meanwhile, it is more efficient when the nitrification liquid-reflux-ratio at the high ratio condition. Comparing with the condition of the nitrification liquid reflux ratio at 100%, the hydrolysis-A/O process system and the hydrolysis process system output water concentration of COD, NH4 +-N, TN, TP are 8.90, 0.07, 3.74, 0.58 mg/L and 25.40, 6.22, 4.09, 1.46 mg/L lower respectively when the nitrification liquid reflux ratio at 200 %. Because of different water quality conditions of the experiment at each stage, the material balance equations is done and the relative ratio of removal quantities per hour index βj, i is used for the evaluation of the removal ability of pollutant in different nitrification liquid reflux ratio. Evaluation results show that in the high nitrification liquid reflux ratio the hydrolysisi pool has higher removal capacity and then the removal loading of the A/O biological pool is reduced, at this case, pullutants removal ability of the entire process is enhanced.

Qu Y.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Wei Q.,Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection | Wei Q.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Li H.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 3 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

Ionic liquid (IL) has been widely investigated in 5-HMF production from biomass. However, most of studies employed IL as reaction solvent which requires a large amount of IL. In the present study, IL was utilized as catalyst in the conversion of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) to 5-HMF under microwave irradiation (MI) in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) containing LiCl. 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG)-based ILs, including 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine tetrafluoroborate ([TMG][BF4]) and 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine lactate ([TMG]L) which were commonly used in the absorption of SO2 and CO2 from flue gas, were synthesized and applied in the conversion of MCC to 5-HMF for the first time. Of the catalysts employed, [TMG]BF4 showed high catalytic activity in 5-HMF production from MCC. The condition including the ratio of IL to MCC, temperature and time for MCC conversion was optimized using Central Composite Design (CCD) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The highest 5-HMF yield of 28.63% was achieved with the optimal condition. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Liu Z.-H.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Ge Y.-S.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Tan J.-W.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Fan S.-B.,Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection | And 2 more authors.
Beijing Ligong Daxue Xuebao/Transaction of Beijing Institute of Technology | Year: 2010

To evaluate the consistency of ESC (European steady cycle) and ETC (European transient cycle) model with bus driving cycle and to compare the emission discrepancy between legislation limits and real-time measurement, the bus driving cycle survey and real-time emission test have been conducted. The statistical characteristic of bus driving cycle was derived from the clustering analysis of driving cycle survey. Four buses which have the same characteristic were chosen to conduct real-time measurement using SEMTECH portable gaseous pollutant analyzer. The results indicate that there have great differences between the bus real-time driving cycle and regulations of ESC stable model and ETC transient model. The CO and NOx emission of the four buses exceed the limits frequently though the engines of the buses did pass the ESC and ETC legislation. In other words, the existing models can not control buses emission effectively. It is necessary to develop a special model for approving bus type on test bench or use portable emission test equipments as a supplement measurement.

Fan S.-B.,Beijing University of Technology | Fan S.-B.,Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection | Li G.,Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection | Cheng S.-Y.,Beijing University of Technology
Beijing Gongye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing University of Technology | Year: 2010

In order to study the characteristics of fugitive dust emission from unpaved roads and control efficiency of chemical dust suppressant, this paper tested the PM10 emission before and after the application of suppressant, and the PM10 emission flux was calculated with the wind speed and wind direction data. The results suggest that the concentration of PM10 near the tested road is relatively high and the daily average value reaches 0.54 mg/m3, and the PM10 concentration and emission flux declined clearly after application of the suppressant0. Based on the traffic volume and wind speed data, it can be found that the key influence factors of dust from unpaved roads are the disturbing of traffic and wind. The control efficiency of the chemical dust suppressant applied is 78%~93% in the tested time, and the largest value is 93% when the traffic volume is high. 90 days after the application of suppressant, the control efficiency is still larger than 50%.

PubMed | Poznan University of Technology, CAS Institute of Process Engineering, Beijing Municipal Research Academy of Environmental Protection and Beijing University of Chemical Technology
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Conversion of carbohydrate into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5- HMF), a versatile, key renewable platform compound is regarded as an important transformation in biomass-derived carbohydrate chemistry. A variety of ILs, not only acidic but also alkaline ILs, were synthesized and used as catalyst in the production of 5-HMF from disaccharide. Several factors including reaction temperature, IL dosage, solvent and reaction time,were found to influence the yield of 5-HMF from cellobiose. Of the ILs tested, hydroxy-functionalized ionic liquid (IL), 1-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([AEMIM]BF4) showed the highest catalytic activity and selectivity. 5-HMF yield of 68.71% from sucrose was obtained after 6hrs at 160C. At the same condition with cellobiose as substrate, 5-HMF yield was 24.73%. In addition, 5-HMF also exhibited good stablity in this reaction system. Moreover, a kinetic analysis was carried out in both acidic and alkaline IL-catalyzed system, suggesting main side reaction in the conversion of fructose catalyzed by acidic and alkaline IL was polymerization of fructose and 5-HMF degradation, respectively.

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