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Ye M.,Tsinghua University | Jin Q.,Tsinghua University | Wang Y.,Beijing Municipal Institute of Labor Protections
Key Engineering Materials

This presentation is intended to provide response managers and others with an understanding of national preparedness and response system that is in place to address emergencies involving industrial accidents, natural disasters, public health and social securities. This paper describes a list of important competencies that have been identified and used for effective disaster response and the management and response procedures of a typical incident in USA, taking 2008 flood in Illinois as an instance. Using the concept of National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICS), Incident Management Teams (IMTs) were trained and established in Illinois. These organizations were deployed into various positions so as to assist the governmental organizations at different levels in planning, commanding, decision making, etc. Source

Zhou Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Hu G.,North China Electrical Power University | Li J.,Beijing Municipal Institute of Labor Protections | Diao C.,Guizhou University
Land Use Policy

With the rapid development of industry in China, the number of gas pipelines that are proposed or under construction is increasing year by year. Accidents such as fire, explosion, and toxic diffusion inevitably happen, which often cause a large number of casualties and property losses. It is increasingly important to analyze the risk along the gas pipelines realistically and to suitably plan, and utilize the surrounding land based on the risk analysis results, thereby reducing the hazards. A theoretical system for risk assessment along the gas pipelines is proposed in this paper. Risks of various major accidents are considered together, superposition effect is analyzed. After the individual risk distribution is obtained, risk zones are divided according to corresponding individual risk value of HSE, and land-use planning suggestions are proposed. Finally, a natural gas pipeline in China is used as an example to illustrate the risk assessment process and its application in urban land-use planning. The proposed method has a certain theoretical and practical significance in establishing and improving risk analysis along the gas pipeline and urban land-use planning. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Li J.,Beijing Municipal Institute of Labor Protections | Zhang B.,Beijing Municipal Institute of Labor Protections | Liu W.,Tsinghua University | Tan Z.,Hebei University of Technology
Process Safety and Environmental Protection

In densely populated urban areas, in the event of the toxic gases leak, how to accurately determine the risky zone and take effective measures to evacuate inhabitants quickly out of dangerous areas and minimize the unexpected losses is a tropical topic in China. First, the ALOHA code defined any interested accidents scenarios. For any different exposure times and concentrations, the distances down wind direction could be determined, which eventually generated the dead zone, wounded zone, injured zone and evacuation zone. Then, it presented the procedure of an emergency evacuation routes selection, the choice of the principle of refuges and shelters for evacuated inhabitants, as well as evacuation traffic organizations, vehicle assignments, real-time communications and other traffic evacuation strategies. Finally, the OREMS code was proposed to study the sudden leak accident and design emergency response policies (ERP). A sudden gaseous leakage incident in Tianjin Olympic stadium was chosen as an example to verify the raw ERP including the evacuation road network design, the evacuation time for vehicles, vehicle running conditions and the possible road congestions. Results showed that when the radium of the emergency evacuation scope is about 3 km, the time for evacuation of 50% vehicles is proper. © 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Source

Tong R.,China University of Mining and Technology | Wang B.,China University of Mining and Technology | Li J.,Beijing Municipal Institute of Labor Protections | Tang S.,Beijing Municipal Institute of Labor Protections | And 2 more authors.

This paper aims to evaluate the crowd evacuation performance in a metro fire by using the limit state equation to describe the egress process. The limit state equation is established by the available time margin in fire evacuation, which comprises the evacuee's response time, behaviour time and movement time to an exit. Here, the available time margin in a fire evacuation is determined by the duration of time the smoke takes to exceed the evacuee's respiration level, the time that the smoke is detected by fire alarm and the time that the evacuee needs to respond and move to an exit during evacuation. Further, Monte Carlo simulation approach has been employed to integrate the fatality rates and the probabilities of occurrence of different scenarios in a typical metro in Xiaobailou station of station-Tianjin Line 1. Through this case study, it is shown that the evacuee's response time, behaviour time and movement time to exits can be integrated in a stochastic process model. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Li J.,Beijing Municipal Institute of Labor Protections | Zhang B.,Beijing Municipal Institute of Labor Protections | Tang S.,Beijing Municipal Institute of Labor Protections | Tong R.,China University of Mining and Technology

The risk in public places was determined by many risk factors, such as fire factor, explosive factor, poisoning factor, structural factor, crowd massing factor, etc. Crowd massing factor is characterised by non-hydrocarbon-related risk, which is the feature of crowd massing public places. A study on such compound risk was carried out to deal with the hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon-related risk at the same time. Within the framework of a quantitative risk analysis, the probabilities and consequences of a set of defined risk factors were determined as a basis for decision making. Based on previous study, in a certain time span, the occurrences of fires in public places and their probabilities could be described as Poisson distribution. So it is presumed that occurrences of these five categories of accidents follow Poisson distribution too. Then, a model was set up to quantify the risk of crowd massing public places according to the average exposure time of the evacuees and the mortalities caused by the risk factors in public places. Case studies showed that the individual risk in public places would be 10-10 yr-1. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

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