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Long Y.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design | Shen Z.,Kanazawa University
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems

The use of micro-models as supplements for macro-models has become an accepted approach into the investigation of urban dynamics. However, the widespread application of micro-models has been hindered by a dearth of individual data, due to privacy and cost constraints. A number of studies have been conducted to generate synthetic individual data by reweighting large-scale surveys. The present study focused on individual disaggregation without micro-data from any large-scale surveys. Specifically, a series of steps termed Agenter (a portmanteau of "agent producer") is proposed to disaggregate heterogeneous agent attributes and locations from aggregate data, small-scale surveys, and empirical studies. The distribution of and relationships among attributes can be inferred from three types of existing materials to disaggregate agent attributes. Two approaches to determining agent locations are proposed here to meet various data availability conditions. Agenter was initially tested in a synthetic space, then verified using the acquired individual data, which were compared to results generated using a null model. Agenter generated significantly better disaggregation results than the null model, as indicated by the proposed similarity index (SI). Agenter was then used in the Beijing Metropolitan Area to infer the attributes and location of over 10. million residential agents using a census report, a household travel survey, an empirical study, and an urban GIS database. Agenter was validated using micro-samples from the survey, with an average SI of 72.6%. These findings indicate the developed model may be suitable for using in the reproduction of individual data for feeding micro-models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gu Y.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design | Zheng S.,Tsinghua University
Acta Geographica Sinica

Theoretical analysis shows that the effect of rail transit on housing price is greater in suburbs than that in the central area. Empirical results validate this point by using the hedonic pricing method and housing transaction data nearby No. 13 rail line in Beijing. In suburban areas, the housing prices within 1 km of rail stations are nearly 20% higher than those beyond that distance. However, with the development of surrounding urban transportation networks, the impact of rail transit is declining. Also, rail transit has significant impacts on urban land development intensity. The operation of No. 13 Line encourages the land development in the north suburbs of Beijing, and raises the land development intensity around the stations. The FAR of new housing projects decreases by 1.0 every 3.3 km further away from the stations in suburban areas. These empirical results have important policy implications for the TOD strategy, the cost-benefit analysis and value capture strategy of rail transit construction in Chinese cities. Source

Long Y.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design | Thill J.-C.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems

Location Based Services (LBS) provide a new perspective for spatiotemporally analyzing dynamic urban systems. Research has investigated urban dynamics using LBS. However, less attention has been paid to the analysis of urban structure (especially commuting pattern) using smart card data (SCD), which are widely available in most large cities in China, and even in the world. This paper combines bus SCD for a one-week period with a oneday household travel survey, as well as a parcel-level land use map to identify job-housing locations and commuting trip routes in Beijing. Two data forms are proposed, one for jobs-housing identification and the other for commuting trip route identification. The results of the identification are aggregated in the bus stop and traffic analysis zone (TAZ) scales, respectively. Particularly, commuting trips from three typical residential communities to six main business zones are mapped and compared to analyze commuting patterns in Beijing. The identified commuting trips are validated by comparison with those from the survey in terms of commuting time and distance, and the positive validation results prove the applicability of our approach. Our experiment, as a first step toward enriching LBS data using conventional survey and urban GIS data, can obtain solid identification results based on rules extracted from existing surveys or censuses. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Long Y.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design | Gu Y.,University of California at Berkeley | Han H.,College of Public Administration
Landscape and Urban Planning

Evaluation of urban planning implementation (UPI) has attracted extensive attention from urban planners and researchers in recent years. Existing literature, however, mainly focuses on the conformity approach and does not take the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of UPI into account. In addition, previous research failed to distinguish the effects of urban planning from other institutional forces, as well as market incentives on urban expansion. To bridge this gap, we proposed a spatiotemporal approach to evaluate the effectiveness of UPI based on logistic regression and geographical information system (GIS) by identifying the spatiotemporal heterogeneous effects of urban planning on urban expansion. An empirical research was conducted in the Beijing Metropolitan Area (BMA) by analyzing five urban master plans drafted in 1958, 1973, 1982, 1992 and 2004. Five periods from 1947 to 2008 were examined to evaluate the dynamic effects of each master plan and other related factors. The effects of the 2004 Urban Master Plan on 16 districts in Beijing were estimated to identify the spatial variations of UPI. Within the context of China's booming economy, the results indicate that the effects of urban planning during the urban expansion increase over time, and are significantly stronger in exurban areas than in central cities and suburban areas. In addition, based on logistic regression results, we adopted an existing urban expansion simulation model to geographically visualize the impact of urban planning on future urban expansion, namely urban planning implementation effectiveness. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Long Y.,Nanjing University | Long Y.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design | Jin X.,Nanjing University | Yang X.,Nanjing University | Zhou Y.,Nanjing University
Applied Geography

The reconstruction of arable land patterns over historical periods is one of critical research issues in the study of land use and land cover change (LUCC). Taking into account the continuous distribution of arable land and spatial constraints, this paper proposes a constrained cellular automata model to reconstruct historical arable land patterns. The paper describes model establishment, parameter calibration, and results validation in detail. The model was applied to Jiangsu Province, China, and was compared with a conventional spatial allocation method. The results showed that the methodology developed in this study can more objectively reflect the evolution of the pattern of arable land over historical periods, in terms of similarity with contemporary pattern, than the spatial allocation methods and can provide an effective basis for the historical study of arable land. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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