Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design

Beijing, China

Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design

Beijing, China
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Xiong Z.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Yao Z.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design
Proceedings - 2016 9th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, BioMedical Engineering and Informatics, CISP-BMEI 2016 | Year: 2016

Short-term predicting of traffic flow is the key to intelligent transportation system which is the most important suggestion to relieve traffic jam, reduce the emission of traffic as well as decrease the traffic accident. This paper begins with the review of previous attempts to forecast the short-term traffic flow. In addition, the comparison among the linear system theory, artificial intelligence method and nonlinear system theory is proposed on the basis of the summarization of the short-time forecasting method of road network. Additionally, the empirical results show that these three methods under multi-cross-sections condition were superior to single-cross-section. Meanwhile, these three methods have their own advantages and disadvantages and applicable scope in the aspect of calculation efficiency, parameter selection and data demand. © 2016 IEEE.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 5.14M | Year: 2010

Collaborative research on flood resilience in urban areas (CORFU) is an interdisciplinary international project that will look at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. Our vision is that this project will use these differences to create synergies that will bring new quality to flood management strategies globally. Through a 4-year collaborative research programme, the latest technological advances will be cross-fertilised with traditional and emerging approaches to living with floods. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian institutions to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future. Flood impacts in urban areas potential deaths, damage to infrastructure and health problems and consequent effects on individuals and on communities and possible responses will be assessed by envisaging different scenarios of relevant drivers: urban development, socio-economic trends and climate changes. The cost-effectiveness of resilience measures and integrative and adaptable flood management plans for these scenarios will be quantified. CORFU is structured in six Work Packages. WP1 will look at drivers that impact on urban flooding. WP2 will enhance methodologies and tools for flood hazard assessment based on urban flood modelling. WP3 will improve, extend and integrate modern methods for flood impact assessment. WP4 will aim to assess and enhance existing flood risk management strategies. WP5 will disseminate the outputs. WP6 will co-ordinate the project.

Jia H.,Tsinghua University | Ma H.,Tsinghua University | Ma H.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design | Wei M.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design
Ecological Complexity | Year: 2011

Urban wetlands, a complex social-economic-natural ecosystem, are known to provide many valuable ecological benefits to urban ecosystems. There has been much achievement related to wetland research, however, the research on urban wetland planning is lag. In this paper, the methodology on urban wetland planning was explored from the viewpoint of urban planning. Firstly, the major ecological services of urban wetlands, i.e., its efficacies on water purification, flood control, local microclimate adjustment, and scenic creation and cultural heritage are thoroughly discussed based on the ecological complexity research on urban wetland. Then, from the viewpoint of urban wetland planning, urban wetlands were classified as flood control wetlands, water purification wetlands, cultural, scenic wetlands, etc. Urban wetland planning techniques were proposed, including the setting of main functions; the appropriate locations of urban wetlands; the calculation of urban wetland areas; the determination of urban wetland spatial distribution, and the method of estimating ecological water requirements. Finally, after an in-depth investigation of the wetland situations in Beijing, a document for urban wetland planning in Beijing central region was drafted in accordance with development objectives set forth by Beijing government. In the planning, the acreage and spatial location of each type of urban wetlands were determined, and estimates of ecological water requirement by urban wetlands and its deployment were also given. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Long Y.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design | Shen Z.,Kanazawa University
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems | Year: 2013

The use of micro-models as supplements for macro-models has become an accepted approach into the investigation of urban dynamics. However, the widespread application of micro-models has been hindered by a dearth of individual data, due to privacy and cost constraints. A number of studies have been conducted to generate synthetic individual data by reweighting large-scale surveys. The present study focused on individual disaggregation without micro-data from any large-scale surveys. Specifically, a series of steps termed Agenter (a portmanteau of "agent producer") is proposed to disaggregate heterogeneous agent attributes and locations from aggregate data, small-scale surveys, and empirical studies. The distribution of and relationships among attributes can be inferred from three types of existing materials to disaggregate agent attributes. Two approaches to determining agent locations are proposed here to meet various data availability conditions. Agenter was initially tested in a synthetic space, then verified using the acquired individual data, which were compared to results generated using a null model. Agenter generated significantly better disaggregation results than the null model, as indicated by the proposed similarity index (SI). Agenter was then used in the Beijing Metropolitan Area to infer the attributes and location of over 10. million residential agents using a census report, a household travel survey, an empirical study, and an urban GIS database. Agenter was validated using micro-samples from the survey, with an average SI of 72.6%. These findings indicate the developed model may be suitable for using in the reproduction of individual data for feeding micro-models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gu Y.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design | Zheng S.,Tsinghua University
Acta Geographica Sinica | Year: 2010

Theoretical analysis shows that the effect of rail transit on housing price is greater in suburbs than that in the central area. Empirical results validate this point by using the hedonic pricing method and housing transaction data nearby No. 13 rail line in Beijing. In suburban areas, the housing prices within 1 km of rail stations are nearly 20% higher than those beyond that distance. However, with the development of surrounding urban transportation networks, the impact of rail transit is declining. Also, rail transit has significant impacts on urban land development intensity. The operation of No. 13 Line encourages the land development in the north suburbs of Beijing, and raises the land development intensity around the stations. The FAR of new housing projects decreases by 1.0 every 3.3 km further away from the stations in suburban areas. These empirical results have important policy implications for the TOD strategy, the cost-benefit analysis and value capture strategy of rail transit construction in Chinese cities.

Zhou J.,University of Queensland | Long Y.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design
Urban Studies | Year: 2016

When optimising the overall commuting pattern for a city or a region, there are often winners and losers among commuters at the subdivision level. Losers are those who are burdened with longer commutes than before the optimisation. Knowing who or where losers are is of interest to both researchers and policy-makers. The information would help them efficiently locate losers and compensate them. Few, however, pay attention to such losers. By revisiting ‘excess commuting’ in the economic framework, we show that optimising the commuting pattern is comparable to restoring Pareto optimality in commuting. Using Beijing as a case study, we identify and geo-visualise the losers when the city’s bus commuting pattern is optimised. We examine the severity of the loss among the losers, the spatial pattern of the losers and their influencing factors. We find that most losers are located around the epicenter. The severity of the loss is independent of jobs/housing ratio but is associated with the commute distance before the optimisation. Workers whose commute distance is less than the global average are more likely to become losers. Places where losers reside have significantly lower employment density in a few industries than where non-losers reside. A low jobs/housing ratio in individual subareas does not necessarily increase the average trip length of commuters therein. A low jobs/housing ratio of one or several subareas, however, could influence the average trip length of all the commuters in the area. Locating diverse jobs and housing opportunities around or along transit corridors could compensate the losers and reduce the overall commuting cost. © 2015, © Urban Studies Journal Limited 2015.

Yang W.R.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015

Beijing has experienced rapid urbanization after the last city' s master planning (2004—2020), and the city' s landscape pattern has changed greatly in spatial and temporal scale. During the rapid urbanization process, the city occupied huge amounts of open spaces and agricultural land, which changed the distribution and constituents of landscape that impacted the ecosystem services, and resulted in series of eco- environmental problems. Based on the Landsat TM images of 2003, 2007 and 2011 as spatial data, under the supporting of RS and GIS tools and Fragstats software, we analyzed the change characteristics of urban landscape pattern during these years. Combined with social and economic statistical data, city' s master planning (2004—2020) and urban management policies, we aim to find the driving forces of landscape pattern change. The results showed that the city' s landscape pattern changed significantly from 2003 to 2011. The urban construction land increased from 15.0% to 18.0%, and the cultivated land decreased from 21.3% to 18.8% conversely. The forest land is the dominated landscape type and its area proportion is kept up 51% during the study period. In the extent of 6th ring road which is typical urbanized area, the construction land increased by 10% but the cultivated land decreased by 10% correspondingly during the study period. The construction land remained as the dominated landscape type. The landscape pattern within the 6th ring road area is different from the whole city, but there is a common phenomenon that the increased construction land were at the cost of disappeared cultivated lands. The landscape metrics analysis revealed that the construction land has high degree of patches fragmentation in landscape class level at city scale, and at landscape level, the landscape' s contagion and aggregation were declined, but the landscape diversity was increased. However, there are different results in scale of the 6th ring road extent, the construction land has low degree of patches fragmentation in landscape class level, the landscape' s contagion and aggregation increased but landscape diversity declined rapidly in landscape level. Nevertheless the complexity of landscape spatial shape increased at both scales. Driving forces analysis revealed that increasing population, urban industry regulation, implementation of city' s master planning and local city' s development policies are the main factors that cause the change of city' s landscape pattern. © 2015, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.

Jia H.,Tsinghua University | Ma H.,Tsinghua University | Ma H.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design | Wei M.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2011

The minimum ecological water requirements of an urban river system and water deployment are key elements in integrated water resources planning and urban ecological construction. Based on a review of ecological water requirement calculation methods and considering the different ecological functions of an urban river system, the ecological function method was used in this paper to calculate the components of the ecological water requirements of an urban river. An envelope curve-based method was proposed for assessing the minimum ecological water requirements of an urban river system. Water resources deployment strategies designed to meet the minimum ecological water requirements were described. Then, the minimum ecological water requirements of the urban river system in Beijing central region, selected as a case study, were investigated. The key parameters for assessing the minimum ecological water requirement in the Beijing urban river system were determined. Based on the ecological objectives and the current status of the different urban river systems within the Beijing central region, the minimum ecological water requirements were calculated. Different types of water sources, including rainwater, upstream water, and reclaimed water, were deployed to meet the ecological water requirements for the urban river system in the Beijing central region. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Long Y.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design | Gu Y.,University of California at Berkeley | Han H.,College of Public Administration
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2012

Evaluation of urban planning implementation (UPI) has attracted extensive attention from urban planners and researchers in recent years. Existing literature, however, mainly focuses on the conformity approach and does not take the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of UPI into account. In addition, previous research failed to distinguish the effects of urban planning from other institutional forces, as well as market incentives on urban expansion. To bridge this gap, we proposed a spatiotemporal approach to evaluate the effectiveness of UPI based on logistic regression and geographical information system (GIS) by identifying the spatiotemporal heterogeneous effects of urban planning on urban expansion. An empirical research was conducted in the Beijing Metropolitan Area (BMA) by analyzing five urban master plans drafted in 1958, 1973, 1982, 1992 and 2004. Five periods from 1947 to 2008 were examined to evaluate the dynamic effects of each master plan and other related factors. The effects of the 2004 Urban Master Plan on 16 districts in Beijing were estimated to identify the spatial variations of UPI. Within the context of China's booming economy, the results indicate that the effects of urban planning during the urban expansion increase over time, and are significantly stronger in exurban areas than in central cities and suburban areas. In addition, based on logistic regression results, we adopted an existing urban expansion simulation model to geographically visualize the impact of urban planning on future urban expansion, namely urban planning implementation effectiveness. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

Long Y.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design | Zhang Y.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design | Cui C.,Beijing Municipal Institute of City Planning and Design
Acta Geographica Sinica | Year: 2012

This paper combines the one-week bus smart card data (SCD) and one-day household travel survey as well as the parcel-level land use map for identifying jobs-housing places and commuting trips in the Beijing Metropolitan Area with an area of 16410 square kilometers. The identification result is aggregated in the bus stop and traffic analysis zone (TAZ) levels, respectively. In particular, commuting trips with commuting time and distance attached from three typical residence communities and those to five typical business zones are mapped and compared with each other to analyze commuting patterns of Beijing. The identified commuting trips are compared with those in the household travel survey in terms of commuting time and distance, indicating that our results are coincident with the survey significantly. Our approach is proved to have its potential in identifying more solid identification result based on rules extracted from existing surveys or censuses.

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