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Li L.,Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center | Liu Y.,Emory University
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

Both the long-term and short-term variability of carbon monoxide (CO) pollution in Beijing metropolitan area, China are studied with 11 years of MOPITT observations and 10 years of ground measurements. The impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on regional air quality is also examined. MOPITT CO columns exhibit different temporal patterns from ground CO concentration measurements. MOPITT CO column in August has gradually increased from 2000 to 2007, even though ground level CO concentrations have significantly decreased due to continued local air pollution control effort. Both CO columns and ground CO concentrations were reduced due to strict albeit temporary emissions control measures from July to September 2008 to support the Beijing Olympic Games. However, the reduction of total CO columns (∼13%) was less pronounced than ground CO concentration (∼44%), indicating that local emission control effort was partially offset by the continuously deteriorating regional air quality. In addition, MOPITT CO mixing ratio profiles indicate a significant regional pattern at higher altitudes. CO total columns after 2008 show an overall increasing trend, in contrast to the decreasing trend observed in ground measurements. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Li L.,Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center | Wang Y.,Minzu University of China
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2011

NO 2 mass concentration during 1999-2010 and vertical column density data during 2004-2010 in Beijing were studied using satellite monitoring data (OMI and GOME-2) and conventional observation data. The results showed that there was an increase of NO 2 mass concentration in Beijing from 1999 to 2007. Air cleaning measures taken during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games reduced NO 2 mass concentration and column density greatly, which again increased in 2009 but with a level lower than before 2008. This is possibly resulted from the source control efforts associated with the Olympics, economic downturn and the adjustment of industrial structure. In 2010, NO 2 mass concentration at Nongzhanguan station and Dingling station continued to increase, but at Gucheng station reduced to the minimum, thanks to the off production of smelting and hot-rolled steel in Shijingshan District. NO 2 columns were season-dependent. There were shorter chemical lifetimes and smaller NO 2 columns in summer than in winter in Beijing. At Waliguan where natural emissions dominated, NO 2 columns showed reversed phenomenon compared to Beijing. At Longfengshan both affected by anthropogenic and natural emissions, NO 2 columns had two peaks and two troughs. Diurnal variation of NO 2 was also obvious. GOME2 generally observed higher NO 2 amounts at 9:30 than OMI at 13:45 in Beijing, and there was reverse result at Waliguan. NO 2 daily change displayed characteristics at Longfengshan. NO 2 columns in Beijing had a good correlation with NO 2 mass concentration at Dingling Station. Source


Li H.,Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture | Xu S.,Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture | Huang Y.,Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center | Wei P.,Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2013

Based on the situations of combined sewer overflow (CSO) and consequent water quality deterioration of urban rivers in Beijing, three rain periods were chosen to study the characteristics and their potential pollution risks from different combined sewage systems. The statistics of rainfall in 2012 show that CSOs usually occur when the accumulated rainfall reaches to 10 mm. In the case of heavy rainstorm, the average concentration of the pollutants in overflow are higher than that of sewage drainage systems in the dry weather. The concentrations of typical pollutants in overflow are as follows: TN 5.11~16.36 mg·L-1, TP 4.34~10.52 mg·L-1, NH4 +-N 1.88~12.73 mg·L-1, COD 134~250 mg·L-1, and SS 120~155 mg·L-1. The contribution rates of the sediment pollution load to runoff outflow of TN, TP, COD, and SS are 20.9%~44.6%, 35.7%~47.3%, 46.2%~48.8%, and 35.7%~79.7%, respectively. In conclusion, it is important to control the depositon and erosion of sediments in combined sewage systems, which can maintain the normal operation of the drainage system and reduce the effluents' pollution loading in the rainy season. Source


Wang M.,Peking University | Shao M.,Peking University | Chen W.,Peking University | Yuan B.,Peking University | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2014

Understanding the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is essential for ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) abatement measures. We made VOC measurements at 27 sites and online observations at an urban site in Beijing from July 2009 to January 2012. Based on these measurement data, we determined the spatial and temporal distribution of VOCs, estimated their annual emission strengths based on their emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO), and quantified the relative contributions of various sources using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model. These results from ambient measurements were compared with existing emission inventories to evaluate the spatial distribution, species-specific emissions, and source structure of VOCs in Beijing. The measured VOC distributions revealed a hotspot in the southern suburban area of Beijing, whereas current emission inventories suggested that VOC emissions were concentrated in downtown areas. Compared with results derived from ambient measurements, the annual inventoried emissions of oxygenated VOC (OVOC) species and C2-C4 alkanes may be underestimated, while the emissions of styrene and 1,3-butadiene may be overestimated by current inventories. Source apportionment using the CMB model identified vehicular exhaust as the most important VOC source, with the relative contribution of 49%, in good agreement with the 40-51% estimated by emission inventories. The relative contribution of paint and solvent utilization obtained from the CMB model was 14%, significantly lower than the value of 32% reported by one existing inventory. Meanwhile, the relative contribution of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage calculated using the CMB model was 6%, whereas LPG usage contribution was not reported by current emission inventories. These results suggested that VOC emission strengths in southern suburban area of Beijing, annual emissions of C2-C4 alkanes, OVOCs and some alkenes, and the contributions of solvent and paint utilization and LPG usage in current inventories all require significant revisions. © 2014 Author(s). Source


News Article
Site: http://www.reuters.com

A electric screen showing Shanghai Pudong financial area in a clear day is seen amid heavy smog in Zhengzhou, Henan province, China, December 9, 2015. A woman wearing a face mask stands on a bridge in front of the financial district of Pudong amid heavy smog in Shanghai, China, December 15, 2015. A man sets up a warning sign next to a vehicle after an accident amid heavy smog after the city issued its first ever 'red alert' for air pollution, in Beijing, China, December 8, 2015. A woman wearing a protective mask rides a bicycle as China warned residents across a large part of northern China to prepare for a wave of choking smog arriving over the weekend, in Beijing, China, December 18, 2015. A man and woman wearing protective masks ride a scooter as China warned residents across a large part of northern China to prepare for a wave of choking smog arriving over the weekend, in Beijing, China, December 18, 2015. A woman wearing a protective mask makes her way as China warned residents across a large part of northern China to prepare for a wave of choking smog arriving over the weekend, in Beijing, China, December 18, 2015. A man wears a protective mask makes her way as China warned residents across a large part of northern China to prepare for a wave of choking smog arriving over the weekend, in Beijing, China, December 18, 2015. Beijing's skyline and a power plant are seen from a high-rise building as China warned residents across a large part of northern China to prepare for a wave of choking smog arriving over the weekend, in Beijing, China, December 18, 2015. The Forbidden City is seen amid heavy smog under a red alert for air pollution, in Beijing, China, December 19, 2015. Buildings inside the Forbidden City are seen amid heavy smog under a red alert for air pollution, in Beijing, China, December 19, 2015. China had warned residents across a large part of its north on Friday to prepare for severe smog arriving over the weekend, the worst of which would hit Beijing, prompting the capital to issue its second ever "red alert". A red alert is triggered when the government believes air quality will surpass a level of 200 on an index that measures various pollutants for at least three days. The U.S. government deems a level of more than 200 to be "very unhealthy". On Saturday morning the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center was showing an air quality reading of 104. "Today I have to work. And where is the smog?" posted one Beijing resident on Weibo, China's Twitter equivalent. "The smog is not so bad. Why do they have driving restrictions?" said another Weibo user in the capital. The Beijing city government issued its first "red alert" last week following criticism that previous bouts of smog had failed to trigger the highest warning level. In Beijing, a red alert means around half the vehicles are removed from the roads, with an odd-even licence plate system enforced. Schools are recommended to close and outdoor construction is banned. Wang Bin, head of the emergency response division of the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau, said that measures were taken in advance to reduce the impact of the pollution and help people to prepare, the official Xinhua news agency reported. The red alert issued earlier this month prevented further deterioration of air quality, the report added, citing the authorities. Beijing's latest red alert is due to last until midnight on Tuesday. The National Meteorological Center said Thursday that parts of north China will see the worst smog so far this year, starting Saturday. But it only issued a yellow alert for the city and many surrounding areas on Saturday. Yellow is the second level on China's four-tier colour-coded pollution alert system. The weather observatory said that areas including southern Beijing, central Hebei, north Henan and west Shandong would be affected by heavy smog, which would start to dissipate from Wednesday. It advised the public to take protective measures and those who suffer from respiratory diseases were urged to stay indoors or to wear face masks if they need to go out.

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