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Yang X.-M.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Zhang M.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Zhang M.,Beijing Metallurgical Equipment Research Design Institute Company Ltd | Li P.-C.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 5 more authors.
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science | Year: 2012

A thermodynamic model for calculating the mass action concentrations of structural units in Fe-S binary melts based on the atom-molecule coexistence theory, i.e., AMCT-N i model, has been developed and verified through a comparison with the reported activities of both S and Fe in Fe-S binary melts with changing mole fraction {Mathematical expression} of S from 0.0 to 0.095 at temperatures of 1773 K, 1823 K, and 1873 K (1500 °C, 1550 °C, and 1600 °C) from the literature. The calculated mass action concentration {Mathematical expression} of S is much smaller than the reported activity {Mathematical expression} of S in Fe-S binary melts with changing mole fraction {Mathematical expression} of S from 0.0 to 0.095. The calculated mass action concentration {Mathematical expression} of S can correlate the reliable 1:1 corresponding relationship with the reported activity {Mathematical expression} or {Mathematical expression} of S through the introduced transformation coefficients with absolutely mathematical meaning or through the defined comprehensive mass action concentration of total S with explicitly physicochemical meaning. The calculated mass action concentrations {Mathematical expression} of structural units from the developed AMCT-N i thermodynamic model can be applied to describe or predict the reaction abilities of structural units in Fe-S binary melts. The reaction abilities of Fe and S show a competitive relationship each other in Fe-S binary melts in a temperature range from 1773 K to 1873 K (1500 °C to 1600 °C). The calculated mass action concentration {Mathematical expression} of FeS 2 is very small and can be ignored because FeS 2 can be incongruently decomposed above 1016 K (743 °C). The very small values for the calculated mass action concentrations {Mathematical expression} of FeS 2 in a range of mole fraction {Mathematical expression} of S from 0.0 to 1.0 as well as a maximum value for the calculated mass action concentration {Mathematical expression} of FeS with mole fraction {Mathematical expression} of S as 0.5 are coincident with diagram phase of Fe-S binary melts. A spindle-type relationship between the calculated mass action concentration {Mathematical expression} and the calculated equilibrium mole number {Mathematical expression} can be found for FeS and FeS 2 in Fe-S binary melts. The Raoultian activity coefficient {Mathematical expression} of S relative to pure liquid S(l) as standard state and the infinitely dilute solution as reference state in Fe-S binary melts can be determined as 1.0045 in a temperature range from 1773 K to 1873 K (1500 °C to 1600 °C). The standard molar Gibbs free energy change {Mathematical expression} of dissolving liquid S for forming [pct S] as 1.0 in Fe-S binary melts relative to 1 mass percentage of S as standard state can be formulated as {Mathematical expression} © 2012 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.


Gao W.-B.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Wang Z.-Z.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Zhao W.-J.,Beijing Metallurgical Equipment Research Design Institute Co. | Dan Z.-G.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Gongneng Cailiao/Journal of Functional Materials | Year: 2015

Using Fe2O3, MnO2, CuO, Co2O3 powders as base materials, and electrolytic manganese slag as composite raw material. A novel infrared radiation material was developed by solid-state reaction method. The phase structure and micro-morphology of the obtained composite infrared radiation material were characterized by XRD and SEM, respectively. The effect of electrolytic manganese slag adding proportion, sintering temperature and holding time on the infrared radiation property of obtained composite materials were discussed. The results showed that as 10% adding proportion of electrolytic manganese slag sintered at 1150, 1210, 1270℃ for 2 h, the emissivities of the obtained composite materials were 0.874, 0.904, 0.911, respectively. The emissivity was 0.924 with the optimum condition for the preparation was sintered at 1270℃ for 3 h. With the increase of the added proportion of manganese slag, the emissivities of samples were declined; however, the emissivity was still 0.89 as the 30% added proportion of manganese slag. The key factors in obtaining high emissivity composite materials were generated and well crystal morphology of CoMn2O4, MnFe2O4 spinel structure and Mn(CuMn)O4 inverse spinel structure. ©, 2015, Journal of Functional Materials. All right reserved.


Guo H.,Tsinghua University | Guo H.,Beijing Metallurgical Equipment Research Design Institute Co. | Zhang T.,Tsinghua University
Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering | Year: 2016

China has become the largest producer of crude steel in the world since 1996, which places the country under huge pressure in terms of resources, energy, and the environment. Examining the driver of steel demand is of great significance to the structural adjustment and sustainable development of the steel industry. The researchers calculate the steel demand in China from 2000 to 2009 based on three sinks (steel stock, export, and loss) by taking the four stages of steel life cycle (production, fabrication and manufacturing, use, and waste management and recycling) as the study object. The researchers conclude that addition to in-use stock is the main driver of steel demand and that the 10-year average addition to inuse stock accounted for 77% of the steel sinks, in which 55% of the addition occurs in the building sector, and the steel for this segment is of low strength with large consumption. Based on the analysis of existing policies, the researchers propose that the steel demand structure will develop toward diversification and that the building sector will realize the upgrade of products as soon as possible to improve construction quality. Under the pressure of rising cost for imported resources, the export ratio of steel products should be controlled appropriately. Thus, recycling economy should be developed to reduce steel losses. © 2016, Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Yang X.-M.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Li J.-Y.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Li P.-C.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Zhang M.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Steel Research International | Year: 2014

The Raoultian activity coefficient γSi0 of Si and γFe0 of Fe in the infinitely dilute solution of Fe-Si binary melts at temperatures of 1693, 1773, 1873, and 1973 K have been determined from the calculated mass action concentrations Ni of structural units in Fe-Si binary melts based on the atom and molecule coexistence theory (AMCT). The activity coefficients of elements γi relative to pure liquid matter as standard state or f%, i referred to 1 mass percentage as standard state or f H, i based on the hypothetical pure liquid matter as standard state have been obtained. The values of first-order activity interaction coefficient Ïμii or eii or hii of Si and Fe related with activity coefficients γi or f%, i or fH, i of Si and Fe are also determined. The standard molar Gibbs free energy change of dissolving liquid element i(l) for forming 1 mass percentage of element i in Fe-Si binary melts have been deduced in a temperature range from 1693 K to 1973 K. The molar mixing thermodynamic properties, such as molar mixing Gibbs energy change/enthalpy change/entropy change of Fe-Si binary melts have been reliably determined in a temperature range from 1693 K to 1973 K. The excess values and excess degrees of the above-mentioned molar mixing thermodynamic properties of Fe-Si binary melts have been also determined based on ideal solution or regular solution as a basis, respectively. The determined molar mixing Gibbs energy change of Fe-Si binary melts is equal to that based on regular solution as a basis in the full composition range of Fe-Si binary melts in a temperature range from 1693 K to 1973 K. The partial mixing thermodynamic properties of Si and Fe are not recommended to obtain from the calculated mass action concentration NSi of Si and NFe of Fe as well as the measured activity aR, Si of Si and aR, Fe of Fe in Fe-Si binary melts. The Raoultian activity coefficient γSi0 of Si and γFe0 of Fe in the infinitely dilute solution of Fe-Si binary melts at temperatures of 1693, 1773, 1873, and 1973 K have been determined from the calculated mass action concentrations Ni of structural units in Fe-Si binary melts based on the atom and molecule coexistence theory (AMCT). The figure shows the accurate agreement between the calculated mass action concentration NSi of Si and the calculated activity a%, Si NSi of Si referred to 1 mass percentage of Si as standard state in the full composition range of Fe-Si binary melts at temperatures of 1693, 1773, 1873, and 1973 K, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Yang X.-M.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Zhang M.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Zhang M.,Beijing Metallurgical Equipment Research Design Institute Company Ltd | Zhang J.-L.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | And 3 more authors.
Steel Research International | Year: 2014

The defined oxidation ability of metallurgical slags based on the ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT), i.e., the comprehensive mass action concentration NFetO of iron oxides, has been verified through comparing the calculated NFetO and the reported activity aFetO of iron oxides in the selected FetO-containing slag systems. To calculate the defined comprehensive mass action concentration NFetO of iron oxides in the selected slag systems, a thermodynamic model for calculating the mass action concentrations of structural units or ion couples in CaO-SiO2-MgO-FeO-Fe2O 3-MnO-Al2O3-P2O5 type slags, i.e., the IMCT-Ni thermodynamic model, has been developed. The defined comprehensive mass action concentration NFetO of iron oxides is more accurate than the measured activity aFetO of iron oxides to represent the slag oxidation ability of the selected FetO-containing slag systems. The calculated comprehensive mass action concentration NFetO of iron oxides or the reported activity aFetO of iron oxides in the selected FetO- containing slag systems shows an increase tendency with an increase of optical basicity of the slags by taking ΛFeO as 0.93 and ΛFe2O3 as 0.69, or ΛFeO as 1.0 and ΛFe2O3 as 0.75, rather than by taking ΛFeO as 0.51 and ΛFe2O3 as 0.48. The slag oxidation ability represented by the defined comprehensive mass action concentration NFetO of iron oxides or the measured activity aFetO of iron oxides is not only decided by the effects of iron oxides, but also by the comprehensive effects of both iron oxides and basic oxides as CaO or MgO or MnO in the selected Fe tO-containing slag systems. To calculate the defined comprehensive mass action concentration NFetO of iron oxides in the selected slag systems, a thermodynamic model for calculating the mass action concentrations of structural units or ion couples in CaO-SiO2-MgO-FeO-Fe2O 3-MnO-Al2O3-P2O5 type slags, i.e., the IMCT-Ni model, has been developed. The cover shows the reliable agreement between the calculated comprehensive mass action concentration NFetO of iron oxides by the developed IMCT-Ni model and reported activity aFetO of iron oxide(s) in 13 slag systems at different temperatures. The determined comprehensive mass action concentration NFetO of iron oxides can be successfully applied to predict the oxidation ability of metallurgical slags. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Yang X.-M.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Li P.-C.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Li P.-C.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Li J.-Y.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 5 more authors.
Steel Research International | Year: 2014

A thermodynamic model for calculating the mass action concentrations of structural units in Fe-P binary melts based on the atom-molecule coexistence theory, i.e., AMCT-Ni model, has been developed and verified through comparing with the reported activities of both P and Fe in Fe-P binary melts with mole fraction xP of P <0.33 in a temperature from 1406 K to 1973 K. The calculated mass action concentration NP of P or N Fe of Fe has a very good 1:1 corresponding relationship with the reported activity aR,P of P or aR,Fe of Fe relative to pure liquid P(l) or Fe(l) as standard state, and can be applied to substitute the measured activity aR,P of P or aR,Fe of Fe in Fe-P binary melts. The Raoultian activity coefficient γP0 of P and γFe0 of Fe in the infinitely dilute solution of Fe-P binary melts in a temperature from 1406 K to 1973 K have been determined from the calculated mass action concentrations Ni of structural units in Fe-P binary melts. The activity aR,i, a%,i, and aH,i of P or Fe relative to three standard states have been obtained. The values of the first-order activity interaction coefficient Ïμii or eii or hii of P and Fe related with activity coefficients γi or f%,i or fH,i of P and Fe in Fe-P binary melts are also determined. A thermodynamic model for calculating the mass action concentrations of structural units in Fe-P binary melts based on the atom-molecule coexistence theory, i.e., AMCT-Ni model, has been developed and verified through comparing with the reported activities of both P and Fe in Fe-P binary melts with mole fraction xP of P <0.33 in a temperature from 1406 K to 1973 K. The cover shows that the calculated mass action concentration NP of P can correlate a very good 1:1 corresponding relationship with the reported activity aR,P of P relative to pure liquid P(l) as standard state. The calculated mass action concentration NP of P or NFe of Fe can be applied to substitute the measured activity aR,P of P or aR,Fe of Fe in Fe-P binary melts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Yang X.-M.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Yang X.-M.,Beijing Metallurgical Equipment Research Design Institute Company Ltd | Zhang M.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Zhang M.,Beijing Metallurgical Equipment Research Design Institute Company Ltd | And 5 more authors.
Steel Research International | Year: 2013

A thermodynamic model for calculating the mass action concentrations of structural units in Fe-Si binary melts based on the atom-molecule coexistence theory, i.e., the AMCT-Ni model, has been developed and verified through comparing with the reported activities of both Si and Fe in the full composition range of Fe-Si binary melts at temperatures of 1693, 1773, 1873, and 1973 K from the literature. The calculated mass action concentration N Si of free Si or NFe of free Fe in the full composition range of Fe-Si binary melts has a good 1:1 corresponding relationship with the reported activity aR,Si of Si or aR,Fe of Fe relative to pure liquid Si(l) or Fe(l) as standard state. The calculated mass action concentration NSi of free Si has a good corresponding relationship with the calculated activity a%,Si of Si referred to 1 mass% of Si as standard state as well as the calculated activity aH,Si of Si relative to the hypothetical pure liquid Si(l) as standard state. The calculated activity a%,Si or aH,Si of Si is much greater than the calculated mass action concentration NSi of free Si in Fe-Si binary melts. The reaction abilities of both Si and Fe show a competitive or coupling relationship in Fe-Si binary melts at the above-mentioned four temperatures. The calculated mass action concentrations Ni of six structural units as Fe, Si, Fe2Si, Fe5Si3, FeSi, and FeSi 2 cannot show the linear relationship with the calculated equilibrium mole numbers ni in 100-g Fe-Si binary melts simultaneously. A spindle-type relationship between the calculated mass action concentration Ni and the calculated equilibrium mole number ni of FeSi and FeSi2 in Fe-Si binary melts has been found. The cover shows the accurate agreement between the calculated mass action concentration N Si of Si and the reported activity aR,Si of Si relative to pure liquid Si(l) as standard state by Chipman et al. in the full composition range of Fe-Si binary melts at temperatures of 1693, 1773, 1873, and 1973 K, respectively. The determined mass action concentration NSi of Si in Fe-Si binary melts can be successfully applied to predict the reaction ability like the defined activity aR,Si of Si in the investigated temperature range. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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