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Wang X.H.,Emory University | Zhang L.,Baylor College of Medicine | Mitch W.E.,Baylor College of Medicine | LeDoux J.M.,Georgia Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

With muscle wasting, caspase-3 activation and the ubiquitin-proteasome system act synergistically to increase the degradation of muscle proteins. Whether proteasome activity is also elevated in response to catabolic conditions is unknown. We find that caspase-3 increases proteasome activity in myotubes but not in myoblasts. This difference is related to the cleavage of specific 19 S proteasome subunits. In mouse muscle or myotubes, caspase-3 cleaves Rpt2 and Rpt6 increasing proteasome activity. In myoblasts, caspase-3 cleaves Rpt5 to decrease proteasome activity. To confirm the caspase-3 dependence, caspase-3 cleavage sites in Rpt2, Rpt6, or Rpt5 were mutated. This prevented the cleavage of these subunits by caspase-3 as well as the changes in proteasome activity. During differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, there is an obligatory, transient increase in caspase-3 activity, accompanied by a corresponding increase in proteasome activity and cleavage of Rpt2 and Rpt6. Therefore, differentiation changes the proteasome type from sensitivity of Rpt5 to caspase-3 in myoblasts to sensitivity of Rpt2 and Rpt6 in myotubes. This novel mechanism identifies a feed-forward amplification that augments muscle proteolysis in catabolic conditions. Indeed, we found that in mice with a muscle wasting condition, chronic kidney disease, there was cleavage of subunits Rpt2 and Rpt6 and stimulation of proteasome activity. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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