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Shen F.,Peking Union Medical College | Bai J.-Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Meng Y.,Beijing Lianxin Pharmaceutic Co. | Xiao X.,Peking Union Medical College | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Asian Natural Products Research | Year: 2014

Anti-inflammatory component (AIC) known as an important constituent of artificial musk exhibits bioactive effects on many pharmacological models. This study describes an immunochemical assay for the quality control of artificial musk in traditional Chinese medicine using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A polyclonal antibody against AIC was produced by rabbit. The method, at an effective measuring range of 3.13-200 ng/ml of AIC, 3 ng/ml limit of detection, and no cross-reaction with natural musk, successfully detected artificial musk in many traditional Chinese prescriptions containing artificial musk. The results demonstrated that a novel and reliable assay system for detection of artificial musk was generated. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Meng Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Meng Y.,Beijing Lianxin Pharmaceutic Co. | Xiao Q.,Peking Union Medical College | Bai J.-Y.,Peking Union Medical College | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Asian Natural Products Research | Year: 2014

In this letter, (R)-muscone and (S)-muscone were prepared by optical resolution of dl-muscone using N,N′-dibenzyl-l-tartaramide or N,N′-dibenzyl-d-tartaramide, according to the method reported by Kunihiko Takabe. But we separated the diastereomers using EtOH instead of MeOH in the recrystallization step to get the goal product with higher optical purity and yield. The regulatory effect of muscone and its enantiomer on the neural system showed that they could prolong mouse hypoxia tolerance and dose-dependently enhance mouse spinal cord stimulation induced by strychnine nitrate. (R)-muscone and (S)-muscone had a synergistic action on shortening sleep time induced by sodium pentobarbital in mice. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Xiao X.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Liu D.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Wang K.-M.,Beijing Lianxin Pharmaceutic Co. | Chen J.-Z.,XING | Zhang S.,Beijing Lianxin Pharmaceutic Co.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae | Year: 2014

Objective: To explore the usefulness of head-space gas chromatography for the determination of methanol and ethanol in Haikesu I, a raw material of artificial musk. Methods: The determination was performed on HP-5 (30 m ×O. 53 mm, 5 μm) capillary column with an hydrogen flame ionization detector. The solvent was dimethyl sulfoxide and the internal standard was acetone. The injector temperature and the detector temperature were controlled at 180 °C and 250°C, respectively. The carrier gas was nitrogen. The containers of head-space injector were preheated at 90 °C for 15 minutes. The column temperature was programmed raised, which achieved baseline separation of the components. Results: The results showed a good linear relationship for methanol and ethanol in their linearity range; and the limit of detection was 0. 8 and 1. 0 μg/ml, respectively. The precision and average recoveries were satisfactory. Conclusion: The head-space gas chromatography is simple, rapid, and precise technique for the measurement of residual solvents in Haikesu I.


Xiao X.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Liu D.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Wang K.-M.,Beijing Lianxin Pharmaceutic Co. | Chen J.-Z.,XING | Zhang S.,Beijing Lianxin Pharmaceutic Co.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine ethylacetate and petroleum ether (60-90 °C) in Haikesu II, which is one of the raw materials of artificial musk, using the head-space gas chromatography. Methods: The determination was performed on HP-5 (30 m ×O. 53 mm, 5 μin) capillary column with an hydrogen flame ionization detector. The solvent was dimethyl sulfoxide and the internal standard was methanol. The injector temperature and the detector temperature were controlled at 180 °C and 250 °C, respectively. The carrier gas was nitrogen. The containers of head-space injector were preheated at 90 °C for 15 minutes. The column temperature was programmed raised, which achieved baseline separation of the components. Results: The results showed a good linear relationship for ethylacetate and petroleum ether (60-90 °C) in their linearity range; and the limit of detection was 0. 7 and 0. 3 μg/ml, respectively. The good precision and good average recoveries were satisfactory. Conclusion: The head-space gas chromatography is simple, rapid, and precise technique for the measurement of residual solvents in Haikesu II.


Liu D.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Wang K.-M.,Beijing Lianxin Pharmaceutic Co. | Xiao X.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Lun L.-J.,Hongjitang Pharmaceutical Co. | Zhang S.,Beijing Lianxin Pharmaceutic Co.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae | Year: 2014

Objective: To explore the usefulness of a head-space gas chromatography in the determination of residual solvents including methanol, ethanol, ethyl ether, and petroleum ether in muscone in artificial musk. Methods: The head-space gas chromatography was performed on HP-5 (30 m×0.53 mm, 5 μm) capillary column with a hydrogen flame ionization detector. The carrier gas was nitrogen and the solvent was dimethyl sulfoxide. The injector temperature and the detector temperature were controlled at 180 °C and 250 °C, respectively. The containers of head-space injector were preheated at 80 °C for 15 minutes. The column temperature was programmed raised, which achieved baseline separation of the components. Results: The results showed a good linear relationship for methanol, ethanol, ethyl ether, and petroleum ether (60-90 °C) in the range of each consistency; and the limit of detection was 0. 8, 1. 0, 0. 1, and 0. 3 μg/ml, respectively. The precision and average recoveries were satisfactory. Conclusion: The head-space gas chromatography is simple, rapid, and precise technique for measuring residual solvents in muscone.


Liu W.,Institute for Control of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Ethnic Medicine | Zou Q.-W.,Beijing Lianxin Pharmaceutic Co. | Cheng X.-L.,Institute for Control of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Ethnic Medicine | Li M.-H.,Institute for Control of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Ethnic Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae | Year: 2014

Objective: To evaluate the safety of artificial musk by determining its content of five hazard heavy metals. Method: The contents of Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Cu in artificial musk were detected using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Result: The contents of Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Cu was less than 0. 35, 0. 05, 0. 30, 0. 20, and 4. 50 mg/kg in artificial musk. Conclusion: Artificial musk has low contents of heavy metals and therefore meets the safety and quality requirments.


Liu W.,Institute for Control of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Ethnic Medicine | Zou Q.-W.,Beijing Lianxin Pharmaceutic Co. | Cheng X.-L.,Institute for Control of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Ethnic Medicine | Zhang P.,Institute for Control of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Ethnic Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae | Year: 2014

Objective: To control the quality of Xihuangwan by improving the qualitative detection of artificial musk inside this pill. Method: The qualitative detection of artificial musk was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (GC-MS). Result: The established GC-MS successfully detected artificial musk in Xihuangwan. Conclusion: GC-MS is reliable, accurate, and practical in the identification of artificial must inside Xihuangwan.


Zhang P.,Institute for Control of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Ethnic Medicine | Xiao X.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Zhang N.-P.,Institute for Control of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Ethnic Medicine | Xiao X.-Y.,Institute for Control of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Ethnic Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) characteristic spectrum of artificial musk. Methods: HPLC was performed on a HiQ Sil C18 analytical column (4. 6 mm × 250 mm) with the mobile phase of methanol/water (90:10 v/v); the detection wavelength was 254 ntn and the column temperature was maintained at 25 t. The similarities among 10 batches of artificial musk samples were anlysised in accordance with the System for Evaluating the Similarities among the Chromatographic Fingerprints of Traditional Chinese Drugs, which is recommended by Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission. Result: The similarities among these 10 batches of artificial musk ranged between 0. 999 and 1. 000. Conclusion: HPLC is a convenient, accurate and reliable technique for establishing the specific spectum of artificial musk and therefore can be used for the quality control of this product.


Meng Y.,Beijing Lianxin Pharmaceutic Co. | Zou Q.-W.,Beijing Lianxin Pharmaceutic Co. | Bai J.-Y.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Cheng G.-F.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | And 4 more authors.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae | Year: 2014

Objective: To identify the anti-inflammatory effects of artificial musk aqueous extract (AME) on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokines secreted or released by RAW264. 7 cells. Methods: Cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α were determined using cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Result: Compared with model group, the levels of major cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, IL-6, and IL-10 significantly decreased in different AME groups in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264. 7 macrophages, AME can remarkably inhibit the release of inflammatory cytokines and thus exerts its anti-inflammatory effects.


Guo J.,Beijing Lianxin Pharmaceutic Co.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae | Year: 2014

Based on the milestone events in the research and development of artificial musk, this artilce elucidates the applications of the musk as traditional Chinese medicine, the protection of the musk deer, the research and development principles and strategies of artificial musk. Artificial musk is a major breakthrough in research on substitutes for medicinal raw materials derived from rare animals.

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