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Bai X.,China Agricultural University | Bai X.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety | Li X.,China Agricultural University | Li X.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety | And 7 more authors.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2017

Research reported in this paper aims to improve the extraction of cucumber leaf spot disease under complex backgrounds. An improved fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, three runs of the marked-watershed algorithm, based on HSI space, are applied to isolate the target leaf. Second, the distance between the pixel xj and the cluster center vi is defined as ‖xj 2-vi 2‖. Third, the pixel's neighborhood mean gray value, which constitutes a two-dimensional vector with grayscale information, is calculated as a sample point, rather than FCM grayscale. Finally, the neighborhood mean gray value and pixel gray value are weighted by matrix w. To evaluate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed segmentation method, tests were conducted for 129 cucumber disease images in vegetable disease database. Results show that average segmentation error was only 0.12%. The proposed method provides an effective and robust segmentation means for sorting and grading apples in cucumber disease diagnosis, and it can be easily adapted for other imaging-based agricultural applications. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Luo J.,China Agricultural University | Song J.-H.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety | Pang R.-P.,Qinhuangdao Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Ren F.-Z.,China Agricultural University
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2016

Different breeds of cows affect the form of fat exist in dairy products and the final functionality, which depended mainly on the composition of the milk fat globules(MFG). However, the relationship between the composition and breeds has not been illuminated. In our study, differences in the lipid content and fatty acid composition of native bovine, buffalo and yak MFG were investigated by confocal Raman spectroscopy. The research offers the possibility of acquisition and analysis of the Raman signal without disruption of the structure of fat globule. The results showed that yak MFG had a higher ratio of band intensities at 2 885/2 850 cm-1, indicating yak MFG tend to have a triglyceride core in a fluid state with a milk fat globule membrane in a crystalline state. The buffalo and yak MFG had a higher level of unsaturation compared to bovine MFG, shown by a higher ratio of band intensities at 1 655/1 744 cm-1. The results indicate that small MFG of buffalo is more unsaturated than yak, while the large MFG of buffalo is less unsaturated than the yak. Thus, selective use of cream with yak MFG would allow a harder and more costly churning process but lead to a softer butter. Buffalo milk which contains larger MFG is more suitable for cream and MFG membrane separation. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Xiao X.,China Agricultural University | Xiao X.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety | Fu Z.,China Agricultural University | Fu Z.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: The main export varieties in China are brand-name, high-quality bred aquatic products. Among them, tilapia has become the most important and fast-growing species since extensive consumer markets in North America and Europe have evolved as a result of commodity prices, year-round availability and quality of fresh and frozen products. As the largest tilapia farming country, China has over one-third of its tilapia production devoted to further processing and meeting foreign market demand. RESULTS: Using by tilapia fillet processing, this paper introduces the efforts for developing and evaluating ITS-TF: an intelligent traceability system integrated with statistical process control (SPC) and fault tree analysis (FTA). Observations, literature review and expert questionnaires were used for system requirement and knowledge acquisition; scenario simulation was applied to evaluate and validate ITS-TF performance. CONCLUSION: The results show that traceability requirement is evolved from a firefighting model to a proactive model for enhancing process management capacity for food safety; ITS-TF transforms itself as an intelligent system to provide functions on early warnings and process management by integrated SPC and FTA. The valuable suggestion that automatic data acquisition and communication technology should be integrated into ITS-TF was achieved for further system optimization, perfection and performance improvement. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.


Qi L.,China Agricultural University | Qi L.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety | Xu M.,University of Portsmouth | Fu Z.,China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2014

Temperature monitoring, shelf-life visibility and Least Shelf-life First Out (LSFO) stock strategy are important contents in perishable food cold chain logistics for both cold chain managers and workers in order to reduce quality and economic losses. This paper illustrates a wireless sensor network (WSN) based integrated Cold Chain Shelf Life Decision Support System (C2SLDS) designed for perishable food product cold chain management. The system is implemented based on the WSN and time temperature indicator (TTI) features. Compared with traditional cold chain management methods used before, the C2SLDS not only bridges the information gap which exists between different cold chain phase enterprises and provide a seamless information flow along the whole chain but also enables cold chain enterprises to predict perishable food's shelf-life and helps make a smart LSFO strategy to reduce the quality and economic loss. System test and evaluation shows that the infield radio transmission is reliable and the whole system meets most of the users' requirements raised in system analysis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Han Y.,China Agricultural University | Fu Z.,China Agricultural University | Fu Z.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety | Zhang X.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2016

Currently, the monitoring system of ornamental fish culturing water quality has the problems such as high cost, poor flexibility and wiring difficulty. In order to solve these problems, a monitoring system was provided based on wireless sensor network. Real-time monitoring of water quality parameter was realized. When the dissolved oxygen was low, it can increase the oxygen content in time and ensure that the water quality was stayed at the best condition. The data acquisition node of this system can collect information of water quality and send the processed data information to USB gateway node and the GPRS gateway node by using wireless communication. The USB gateway node sent the data to computer by USB interface and the GPRS gateway node uploaded the data to data server, so that users can check the water quality data by visiting remote server on mobile phones. The research language of nodes was C language, which can realize collecting, processing and wireless sending of water quality parameter data. VB 6.0 was applied to develop upper computer software while the mobile phone application was developed by Android system. In the test phase, the communication performance of node was good and the key factor to increase reliability of the system was to choose proper radio-frequency power according to communication distance. As the deviation of the sensor was negligible in the test, this system can meet the demand of monitoring of ornamental fish culturing water quality, which made it possible to provide reliable real-time monitoring of water quality parameter in large scales. © 2016, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.


Xiao X.,China Agricultural University | Xiao X.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety | He Q.,Coventry University | Fu Z.,China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2016

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is applied widely in food cold chain logistics. However, traditional monitoring systems require significant real-time sensor data transmission which will result in heavy data traffic and communication systems overloading, and thus reduce the data collection and transmission efficiency. This research aims to develop a temperature Monitoring System for Frozen and Chilled Aquatic Products (MS-FCAP) based on WSN integrated with Compressed Sending (CS) to improve the efficiency of MS-FCAP. Through understanding the temperature and related information requirements of frozen and chilled aquatic products cold chain logistics, this paper illustrates the design of the CS model which consists of sparse sampling and data reconstruction, and shelf-life prediction. The system was implemented and evaluated in cold chain logistics between Hainan and Beijing in China. The evaluation result suggests that MS-FCAP has a high accuracy in reconstructing temperature data under variable temperature condition as well as under constant temperature condition. The result shows that MS-FCAP is capable of recovering the sampled sensor data accurately and efficiently, reflecting the real-time temperature change in the refrigerated truck during cold chain logistics, and providing effective decision support traceability for quality and safety assurance of frozen and chilled aquatic products. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Li X.,China Agricultural University | Liu C.,China Agricultural University | Liu C.,Key Laboratory of Agricultural Information Acquisition Technology | Wen H.,China Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2015

To provide farmers with vegetable diseases knowledge, this paper proposes a method based on voice recognition technology to label and split vegetable diseases videos. Through this method, videos about vegetable diseases can be split into several smaller segments which are more suitable for cell phone. The methods of semantic annotation and video shot clustering were based on video segmentation and voice recognition. In this method, the audio signals of videos were transformed into text strings firstly by voice recognition. Then key semantic entities for labelling video shots semantically were split from the text strings. Finally different video shots were clustered and recombined based on keywords provided by user and the semantic labels of video shots. When applying the method of semantic annotation to two videos, the recall ratios were up to 96.08% and 94.93%, the precision ratios were up to 94.31% and 95.98%, and the F-1 measures were up to 0.93 and 0.92. As for method of video shot clustering, the recall ratios were up to 94.9% and 98.7%, and the precision ratios were up to 92.1% and 90.2%. Results of comparative experiments show that the proposed method is valuable both in theory and practice. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.


Luo J.,China Agricultural University | Ren F.,China Agricultural University | Wang Z.,China Agricultural University | Guo H.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2016

Cheese is a high nutritional dairy product which is rich in protein and calcium. Moreover, cheese is the dietetic mainbody in developed countries, as well as the research hotspot of dairy science. Cheese texture and flavor characteristics are the aggregative indicators of cheese quality. How to improve the texture and flavor of cheese and analyze its forming mechanism are always the emphasis and difficulty of cheese research. By analyzing the steps such as the quality of raw milk, the processing of coagulation, ripening, brining, stretching and concentrating, as well as the processing technology of low fat and low salt cheese, the article comprehensively reveals the key impact factors of the texture and flavor characteristics of cheese. In addition, the article reviews the key mature control technology of cheese processing, such as the regulation of coagulation methods, the use of the adjunct cultures to accelerate the formation of the cheese characteristic flavor, and the genetic modification technology to accelerate the ripening of cheese, etc. Moreover, the article puts forward the research direction of the development of cheese, such as the regulation of calcium to precisely control the curds texture, as well as the effect of somatic cells on the texture and flavor of cheese, and so on. In conclusion, the article aims to provide a reference for quality improvement and industrialization of cheese in China. © 2016, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved.


Fu Z.,China Agricultural University | Fu Z.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety | Xing S.,China Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety | Zhang X.,China Agricultural University
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2013

Food quality safety traceability technology and its application system development are worldwide focus and hot topic. Based on the literature review, the important meaning of food quality safety traceability technology was presented. The significance, development tendency and the main characteristic were summarized from four aspects: traceability unit dividing, information collection, information transformation, and information processing. The result showed that traceable unit in food quality safety traceability technology was developed from experienced dividing to model optimization, information acquisition technology was improved from manual collection to intelligent collection, information transmission technology was changed from independent to standardized transmission, and information processing technology was changed from manual analysis to intelligent decision.


Zhang X.,China Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety | Sun G.,China Agricultural University | Sun G.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety | And 5 more authors.
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Background: Compared to other available non-microbial TTIs, the distinct advantage of microbial TTI is that its response (color change) is a result of a process (the growth and metabolic activity of the TTI microorganism) simulating the actual quality loss process (the bacterial growth and metabolism of the "specific spoilage organisms") of many foods, especially most chilled high-protein foods. This indicates a high possibility that food quality changes due to microorganisms could be reflected by microbial TTIs accurately. Scope and approach: The components of microbial TTIs, response and prediction mechanism are described. The application modeling methods, applications, benefits and limitations, research trends of microbial TTIs are systematically summarized and discussed. Key findings and conclusions: The article puts forward five development trends of microbial TTIs: The microbial TTIs with microencapsulation of microorganisms and two separate compartments could keep microorganisms stable and allow for room temperature storage; The TTIs integrated with RFID and bar code technologies could identify and transmit the color message of TTIs automatically and systematically; The microbial TTIs could be fabricated by a simplified method; The sensitive TTIs to different microbial metabolites are valuable complementarity for microbial TTIs application; The available open shared TTI kinetic parameters database and shelf life prediction models could facilitate the microbial TTIs application. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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