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Luo J.,China Agricultural University | Song J.-H.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety | Pang R.-P.,Qinhuangdao Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Ren F.-Z.,China Agricultural University
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2016

Different breeds of cows affect the form of fat exist in dairy products and the final functionality, which depended mainly on the composition of the milk fat globules(MFG). However, the relationship between the composition and breeds has not been illuminated. In our study, differences in the lipid content and fatty acid composition of native bovine, buffalo and yak MFG were investigated by confocal Raman spectroscopy. The research offers the possibility of acquisition and analysis of the Raman signal without disruption of the structure of fat globule. The results showed that yak MFG had a higher ratio of band intensities at 2 885/2 850 cm-1, indicating yak MFG tend to have a triglyceride core in a fluid state with a milk fat globule membrane in a crystalline state. The buffalo and yak MFG had a higher level of unsaturation compared to bovine MFG, shown by a higher ratio of band intensities at 1 655/1 744 cm-1. The results indicate that small MFG of buffalo is more unsaturated than yak, while the large MFG of buffalo is less unsaturated than the yak. Thus, selective use of cream with yak MFG would allow a harder and more costly churning process but lead to a softer butter. Buffalo milk which contains larger MFG is more suitable for cream and MFG membrane separation. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved. Source


Li X.,China Agricultural University | Li H.,China Agricultural University | Ma Y.,China Agricultural University | Liu C.,China Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2015

Network interworking is a key technological bottleneck for the acquisition of mobile video. To solve this problem, based on the studies of video segmentation, compression, annotation and retrieval, the network interworking gateway for mobile video acquisition was designed which can eventually achieve the acquisition of mobile video of vegetables harmed by pests. Firstly, the 3G-324M and H. 323 network protocol of video telephone network and IP network were analyzed in detail. Then, an interworking gateway of 3G-324M and H. 323 was designed, which included signal gateway and media gateway. Signal gateway is responsible for handling the signal and realizing the control and communication of call level and system level between video telephone network and IP network. Media gateway is responsible for data transmission, realizing the control and communication of media level and data level between video telephone network and IP network. Finally, based on the previous research foundation and the network interworking gateway designed in this paper, a mobile acquisition model was built, and the mobile video acquisition of vegetables harmed by pests was realized. The comparative experiment was carried out on the video acquisition model. Comparing with the traditional methods, it proved that the proposed network interworking gateway and video acquisition model processed theoretical and practical value. © 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved. Source


Li X.,China Agricultural University | Wang C.,China Agricultural University | Wang C.,Tianjin Academy of Agricultural science | Tian Y.,China Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2015

Dissolved oxygen, pH value, conductivity, temperature, etc. are key factors for analyzing water quality. And, how to measure the key factors real-timely is particularly important. It is impossible for traditional empirical methods and chemical detection to satisfy production requirements today. However, with the development of intelligent and networked sensors, wireless network technology can satisfy the requirements of accuracy and real-time in water quality monitoring. ZigBee technology not only has characteristics of short distance, low complexity, powerful networking capability, low cost and high stability, but also has self-owned wireless transmission standard in which multiple modes which can relay each other achieve effective communication in measuring nodes, which fully meets the needs of the wireless water quality monitoring. This paper puts forward wireless water quality monitoring system based on JN5139 ZigBee wireless module. The system gathers perception module, micro-control module and wireless transmission module. Multiplex water quality parameters are collected periodically by wireless network, stored and finally displayed on host computer. These data can also be checked by users after connecting JN5139-Z01-M02/4 system through computer. In case of buildings, trees and obstruction, distance accuracy is 100 m at least. According to experiments, the system has high scalability, low power consumption, strong stability and so on, which can meet the requirements of real-time and data accuracy in water quality monitoring. © 2015, Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved. Source


Li X.,China Agricultural University | Liu C.,China Agricultural University | Liu C.,Key Laboratory of Agricultural Information Acquisition Technology | Wen H.,China Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2015

To provide farmers with vegetable diseases knowledge, this paper proposes a method based on voice recognition technology to label and split vegetable diseases videos. Through this method, videos about vegetable diseases can be split into several smaller segments which are more suitable for cell phone. The methods of semantic annotation and video shot clustering were based on video segmentation and voice recognition. In this method, the audio signals of videos were transformed into text strings firstly by voice recognition. Then key semantic entities for labelling video shots semantically were split from the text strings. Finally different video shots were clustered and recombined based on keywords provided by user and the semantic labels of video shots. When applying the method of semantic annotation to two videos, the recall ratios were up to 96.08% and 94.93%, the precision ratios were up to 94.31% and 95.98%, and the F-1 measures were up to 0.93 and 0.92. As for method of video shot clustering, the recall ratios were up to 94.9% and 98.7%, and the precision ratios were up to 92.1% and 90.2%. Results of comparative experiments show that the proposed method is valuable both in theory and practice. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved. Source


Luo J.,China Agricultural University | Ren F.,China Agricultural University | Wang Z.,China Agricultural University | Guo H.,Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2016

Cheese is a high nutritional dairy product which is rich in protein and calcium. Moreover, cheese is the dietetic mainbody in developed countries, as well as the research hotspot of dairy science. Cheese texture and flavor characteristics are the aggregative indicators of cheese quality. How to improve the texture and flavor of cheese and analyze its forming mechanism are always the emphasis and difficulty of cheese research. By analyzing the steps such as the quality of raw milk, the processing of coagulation, ripening, brining, stretching and concentrating, as well as the processing technology of low fat and low salt cheese, the article comprehensively reveals the key impact factors of the texture and flavor characteristics of cheese. In addition, the article reviews the key mature control technology of cheese processing, such as the regulation of coagulation methods, the use of the adjunct cultures to accelerate the formation of the cheese characteristic flavor, and the genetic modification technology to accelerate the ripening of cheese, etc. Moreover, the article puts forward the research direction of the development of cheese, such as the regulation of calcium to precisely control the curds texture, as well as the effect of somatic cells on the texture and flavor of cheese, and so on. In conclusion, the article aims to provide a reference for quality improvement and industrialization of cheese in China. © 2016, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved. Source

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