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Li J.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Zhao H.,China Agricultural University | Huang W.,China Agricultural University | Huang W.,Center for Research and Development of Viticulture and Enology | Huang W.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Viticulture and Enology
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Our previous work revealed proanthocyanidins (PAs) could pose significant enhancement on the activity of H+-ATPase and fermentation efficiency after a transient initial inhibition (Li et al in Am J Enol Vitic 62(4):512–518, 2011). The aim of the present work was to understand the possible mechanism for this regulation. At Day 0.5 the gene expression level of PMA1 in AWRI R2 strain supplemented with 1.0 mg/mL PAs was decreased by around 54 % with a 50 % and a 56.5 % increase in the concentration of intracellular ATP and NADH/NAD+ ratio, respectively, compared to that of control. After the transient adaptation, the gene expression levels of PMA1 and HXT7 in PAs-treated cells were enhanced significantly accompanied by the decrease of ATP contents and NADH/NAD+ ratio, which resulted in the high level of the activities of rate-limiting enzymes. PAs could pose significant effects on the fermentation via glucose transport, the energy and redox homeostasis as well as the activities of rate-limiting enzymes in glycolysis. © 2014, Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. Source


Li J.-Y.,Qingdao Agricultural University | Li J.-Y.,China Agricultural University | Zhao H.-W.,China Agricultural University | Huang W.-D.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2015

Background and Aims: Proanthocyanidins (PAs), the predominant phenolic substances in wine, are responsible for the astringency of wine. The present work aims to understand the effect of yeast on the concentration and composition of the subunits of PAs during fermentation. Methods and Results: The concentration and cleavage products (subunits) of PAs were measured during fermentation. Early in fermentation (within about 4 days), the concentration of PAs decreased significantly by around 78% for strain BH8 and 67% for strain AWRI R2; in addition, the mean degree of polymerisation and composition of PAs underwent considerable change. At the later phase of fermentation, no significant change was recorded in the concentration and mean degree of polymerisation of PAs, whereas the composition of PAs evolved progressively. Conclusions: Yeast can exert a significant influence on the concentration and structure of PAs during wine fermentation in a strain- and time-dependent manner. Significance of the Study: The results will enable a better understanding of the effect of yeast on the evolution of PAs in winemaking, as well as increase knowledge of the interaction between yeasts and phenolic substances to improve wine composition. © 2015 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc. Source


Zhan J.,China Agricultural University | Zhan J.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Viticulture and Enology | Ma T.,Shaanxi Normal University | Huang W.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2016

Wine ageing is an important process to produce high-quality wines. Traditionally, wines are aged in oak barrel ageing systems. Oak barrel has important roles on the aroma component, color, stability and clarification of wines, however, due to several disadvantages of barrel ageing technology, including the high cost of oak barrel, the long ageing time required and the large space taken up by barrels, which seriously affect and restrict the production capacity and economic benefit of the enterprise. Therefore, on the premise of guarantee the quality of wine, using the artificial ageing technology to shorten the aging time, improve wine quality and reduce production costs become a hot area of research in recent years. This paper reviews recent developments of the artificial ageing technologies of wine, such as treating the wine with micro-oxygenation, oak products, high hydrostatic pressure, magnetic field, irradiation, etc. The impacts of each technology on wine quality during ageing were analyzed, and comparisons among these artificial ageing technologies were made. Furthermore, several strategies to produce high-quality wines in a short ageing period were also proposed. © 2016, Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. All right reserved. Source


Wang W.,China Agricultural University | Wang W.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wang H.L.,China Agricultural University | Wang H.L.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Viticulture and Enology | And 7 more authors.
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2012

Chalcone isomerase (CHI, EC 5. 5. 1. 6) is an entrance enzyme in the flavonoid biosynthesis, which catalyzes the conversion of chalcones to flavanones. In this study, the full-length CHI cDNA from grape vine (Vitis vinifera L.) was cloned, the recombinant protein was purified and the polyclonal antibody was prepared. Using these tools, the expression and tissue localization of CHI in developing grape berry was analyzed by RT-PCR, gel blot hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques. The expression of CHI was dependent on developmental stage, and CHI protein was mainly distributed in vascular bundles throughout all the stages of berry development, which suggested that flavonoids in the berry might have been partially synthesized in situ. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Du G.,China Agricultural University | Du G.,Tianjin University of Commerce | Du G.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Viticulture and Enology | Zhan J.,China Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2012

Yeast strain BH8, which exhibited significant differences from nine other yeast strains studied for glycerol production, was selected to investigate the effect of fermentation temperature (13 and 25°C) and culture medium (synthetic medium and grape must) on fermentation kinetics, yeast growth, and glycerol and ethanol synthesis at three different stages of wine fermentation. Yeast viability was better at 13°C than at 25°C in both growth media, and the more complex grape must enabled yeast cells to reach a higher population density. The accumulation of glycerol, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activity, and the level of expression of the GPD1 gene were highest in the initial stages of fermentation, which potentially counteracted the hyperosmotic stress caused by the high concentration of sugar in the media. More glycerol was produced during fermentation at 25°C than at 13°C and in grape must compared to the synthetic medium at both temperatures. Ethanol production was mainly affected by fermentation temperature. More ethanol was produced at 13°C than at 25°C, with lower expression of the ADH1 gene and level of ADH activity. The expression of the HSP104 and ALD6 genes was induced by ethanol stress in the final stages of fermentation. The amount of glycerol produced was not correlated to the production of acetic or succinic acid. © 2012 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved. Source

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