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Wu X.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding | Wu X.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Wu X.,Beijing Forestry University | Hong G.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding | And 11 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2015

Two possible intergeneric putative hybrids between Cancrinia maximowiczii and an interspecific hybrid (Chrysanthemum naktongense × Chrysanthemum ×morifolium ‘Aifen’) were produced without emasculation. The putative hybrids could be identified by ITS sequences and morphological characteristics. The distinct trait of the putative hybrids presented itself by 7–13 white tubular florets bursting out in the outer capitula. Results of flow cytometry analysis and chromosome counting did not support the nature of the putative hybrids. It was found that the ploidy levels of the putative hybrids and parents are diploid, hexaploid and diploid respectively. Whether the paternal parent is a donor of the genome or not, need to be analyzed further by GISH. We propose that C. maximowiczii may be transferred to the subtribe Artemisiinae based on ITS phylogenetic analysis, although the position of the species and the genus Cancrinia could not be confirmed here. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Hong G.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding | Hong G.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Hong G.,Beijing Forestry University | Wu X.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding | And 11 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2015

An intergeneric hybrid between Hippolytiakaschgarica (maternal plant) and Nipponanthemum nipponicum (paternal plant) was produced without emasculation for the first time. This proves a close relationship between Hippolytia and Nipponanthemum, once again. The hybrids could be identified by nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and morphological characteristics. The composition of the hybrid capitulum was a mix between both parents. It was basically similar to the maternal plant (Hippolytia) with yellow (actinomorphic) tubular florets, but supplemented with 5–13 white tetramerous, or pentamerous tubular florets bursting out in the outer whirl, being more distinctive and bigger. Instead of ligulate white ray florets of the paternal plant (Nipponanthemum), they were tubular (actinomorphic). The same phenomenon recently appeared in the intergeneric hybrid between Cancrinia maximowiczii (tubular) and the interspecific hybrid of Chrysanthemum naktongense × Chrysanthemum ×morifolium ‘Aifen’ (ligulate, daisy-like). The shape of the achenes of our new hybrid is quite similar to that of the paternal parent with pappus of separate unequal subulate scales, or awns. In the maternal parent, pappus is absent. Similarly to the referred intergeneric hybrid, this new viable hybrid might be used as bridge for breeding multi-generic hybrids within the Compositae tribe Anthemideae. Since the molecular mechanism behind the novel phenotype of the new hybrid has not been explored in Chrysanthemum, this is discussed here with recent findings in Senecio, Gerbera and Helianthus. One of the CYCLOIDEA-like genes that control floral symmetry, CYC2c is required for zygomorphy in normal ligulate ray florets. In novel intergeneric hybrids, ray florets remain actinomorphic (tubular), however. Some causes are tackled. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Zhang M.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding | Zhang M.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Zhang M.,Beijing Forestry University | Huang H.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding | And 5 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2014

Proline plays a significant role in plant resistance to abiotic stresses, and its level is determined by a combination of synthesis, catabolism and transport. The primary proteins involved are δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and proline transporter (ProT). To utilise proline metabolism to improve the stress resistance of Chrysanthemum×morifolium, we isolated two P5CS-homologous genes (ClP5CS1 and ClP5CS2), one PDH gene (ClPDH) and four ProT-homologous genes (ClProT1-4) (GenBANK accession numbers: KF743136-KF743142) from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium, which is closely related to chrysanthemums and exhibits strong resistance to stresses. Expression analysis of these genes in different organs and under various stresses indicated that ClP5CSs showed substantial constitutive expression, while ClPDH was only strongly expressed in the capitulum and was inhibited under most stresses. The expression patterns of four ClProT genes presented characteristics of organ specificity and disparity under stresses. Above all, the expression of ClProT2 was restricted to above-ground organs, especially strong in the capitulum and could be obviously induced by various stress conditions. Promoters of ClPDH and ClProTs contained many cis-acting regulatory elements involved in stress responses and plant growth and development. High levels of free proline were found in flower buds, the capitulum under the non-stress condition and later periods of stress conditions except cold treatment. Interestingly, organ specificity and disparity also exist in the level of free proline under different stress conditions. Our study indicates that ClProTs play significant roles in proline accumulation and stress responses, and that ClProT2 could be used to genetically modify the stress resistance of chrysanthemums. In addition, proline metabolism might be closely related to plant flowering and floral development. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Qin Z.,Beijing Forestry University | Qin Z.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Qin Z.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding | Qin Z.,Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment | And 9 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2015

To investigate the diurnal variation of the correlations between the cooling and humidifying effects and canopy structural characteristics of the Koelreuteria paniculata community, the measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, canopy density, leaf area index (LAI) and mean leaf angle (MLA) were performed on calm sunny summer days in the community in Beijing Olympic Forest Park, China. There were significant correlations between the canopy density, LAI and MLA, which affected the cooling and humidifying effects together. The cooling effect reached its maximum by 12:00, whereas the humidifying effect reached its peak at 10:00. Compared with the control open space site, the community appeared to lower the air temperature by 0.43 to 7.53℃ and to increase the relative humidity by 1%-22% during the daytime. However, the cooling and humidifying effects seem to be not effective during the night. The canopy density and LAI were better for determining the cooling and humidifying effects from 9:00 to 12:00. However, these effects were largely controlled only by the canopy density from 12:00 to 14:00 and were significantly correlated with the canopy density and LAI afterwards until 18:00. ©, 2015, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. All right reserved. Source


Qin Z.,Beijing Forestry University | Qin Z.,National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture | Qin Z.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding | Li Z.,Beijing Forestry University | And 11 more authors.
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2014

The measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, and canopy structural characteristics were performed on calm sunny summer days in the Populus tomentosa community and the sun in the Beijing Olympic Forest Park, China. The aim of this study was to investigate in detail the correlations between the detailed cooling and humidifying effects and the canopy structural characteristics of the community. Hourly values of air temperature and relative humidity, canopy density, leaf area index and mean leaf angle were analysed statistically. The cooling effect reached its maximum by 13:00. h, whereas the humidifying effect reached its peak at 09:00. h. Compared with the control open space site, the community seemed to lower the air temperature by 1.0. °C-5.0. °C and to increase the relative humidity by 4%-15% during the daytime. Furthermore, the canopy density had a greater impact in terms of cooling and humidifying effects from 08:00. h to 13:00. h. In addition, these effects were more controlled by the canopy density and by the leaf area index than by the mean leaf angle from 15:00. h to 18:00. h. The results also suggest that the nature of the correlations will vary at different times of the day. Overall, these findings provide new insights into the relationships between canopy structural characteristics and diurnal variations in microclimatic parameters in urban forests, which could be studied in greater detail in future studies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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