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Liu C.,Capital Medical University | Liu C.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation | Dai Z.,Beijing Normal University | Zhang R.,Capital Medical University | And 9 more authors.
Sleep Medicine | Year: 2015

Objective: The objectives of this study were, first, to explore differences in brain activity between normal people and idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients during asymptomatic periods; and, second, to determine whether administering repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to specific cortical regions would reverse any observed differences in brain activity and alleviate patient symptoms. Methods: Fifteen idiopathic RLS patients (nine drug-naive patients) and 14 gender- and age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in spontaneous brain activity during asymptomatic periods. Seven patients received high-frequency (5 Hz) rTMS directed toward the leg area of the primary motor cortex. Scores on the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) Rating Scale and ALFF values were measured before and after treatment. Results: Compared with healthy controls, RLS patients showed lower ALFF in the sensorimotor and visual processing regions, and higher ALFF in the insula, parahippocampal and hippocampal gyri, left posterior parietal areas, and brainstem. These results were largely conserved when only drug-naive patients were considered. After rTMS treatment, ALFF in several sensorimotor and visual regions were significantly elevated and IRLSSG Rating Scale scores decreased, indicating improved RLS symptoms. Conclusions: High-frequency rTMS delivered to the leg area of the primary motor cortex may raise functional activity in the sensorimotor and occipital regions, leading to improve symptoms in RLS patients. These results provide novel insight into RLS pathophysiology and suggest a potential mechanism for rTMS therapy in idiopathic RLS patients. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Yang J.,Shanghai University | Yan T.,Shanghai University | Xue Q.,Capital Medical University | Xue Q.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation | Li Y.-J.,Shanghai University
Chinese Journal of Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2013

The deficiency of brain connectivity has been discovered in cognitive processing of MCI in recent research. It is still unclear that how different brain regions influence each other and what causality is in the brain regions. The aim of this study was to analyze electroencephalography (EEG) directed cortical networks under cognitive task. Thirty elders, including 9 patients with MCI and 21 normal controls, participated in the experiment. We recorded their scalp EEG when they were judging whether the color of two graphics was matched or not. The first 1 seconds EEG data after the stimulus onset were extracted to calculate Partial Directed Coherence. Results showed that the deficiency information flow of right prefrontal cortex and abnormal enhance information flow of left central area were observed in MCI; The input degrees of the front hemisphere were higher than the back hemisphere in both controls and patients. The input degrees of right hemisphere were higher than left hemisphere in controls, but there were not significant differences in patients. Under specific threshold; the input degrees of left hemisphere in controls were lower than MCI under match task (threshold was 0.14, F = 3.780, P = 0.040); the input degrees of left hemisphere in controls were lower than MCI under no match task (threshold was 0.26, F = 3.280, P = 0.040); the input degrees of right hemisphere in controls were lower than MCI under no match task (threshold was 0.18, F = 3.941, P = 0.021). We used the input degree to prove that the MCI had the deficit in right hemisphere under color cognitive task.

Wei L.,Shanghai University | Zhao J.-Q.,Shanghai University | Shi J.,Shanghai University | Xue Q.,Capital Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Yingyong Kexue Xuebao/Journal of Applied Sciences | Year: 2014

In this study, eight elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 17 normal controls participated in a cognition task. The subjects were asked to judge whether the color of two graphics is matched or not, and their scalp electroencephalographs (EEG) were recorded. We calculated the relative power, sample entropy (SEn) and cumulative residual entropy (CREn) of the event-related EEG signals to explore differences between the MCI patients and normal controls. The following results were obtained. 1) There was no difference in alpha relative power, while the MCI patients had higher complexity at medial-frontal and medialposterior regions than the normal controls. 2) The frontal region showed significantly higher complexity than other regions and the center hemisphere had lower complexity than left and right hemisphere in both groups throughout the task. 3) Complexity in anterior brain in match task was higher than that in mismatch task in both groups. Normal controls had more complex EEG activity during the match task in the right-center region. 4) Relative to SEn, the analysis of CREn found more specific nonlinear characteristic in the EEG of MCI patients. All these results show the MCI patients have abnormal EEG activity in brain, and CREn is more suitable for describing the nonlinear characteristic of EEG than SEn. ©, 2014, Press of Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers. All right reserved.

Xu P.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Xiong X.C.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Xue Q.,Capital Medical University | Xue Q.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation | And 8 more authors.
Physiological Measurement | Year: 2014

The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is very helpful for early therapeutic interventions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MCI has been proven to be correlated with disorders in multiple brain areas. In this paper, we used information from resting brain networks at different EEG frequency bands to reliably recognize MCI. Because EEG network analysis is influenced by the reference that is used, we also evaluate the effect of the reference choices on the resting scalp EEG network-based MCI differentiation. The conducted study reveals two aspects: (1) the network-based MCI differentiation is superior to the previously reported classification that uses coherence in the EEG; and (2) the used EEG reference influences the differentiation performance, and the zero approximation technique (reference electrode standardization technique, REST) can construct a more accurate scalp EEG network, which results in a higher differentiation accuracy for MCI. This study indicates that the resting scalp EEG-based network analysis could be valuable for MCI recognition in the future. © 2014 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

Yang Y.,Capital Medical University | Yang Y.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation | Zhang X.,Capital Medical University | Zhang X.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation | And 6 more authors.
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2015

Background: Cognitive function in anxiety disorders has been the subject of limited investigation, especially in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive function in subjects with GAD using mismatch-triggered negativity N270. Methods: Fifteen medication-free patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD, and 15 well-matched healthy controls performed a dual-feature delayed matching task while event-related potentials were recorded from their scalp. Results: The GAD group was characterized by the decreased N270 amplitude in the left hemisphere. The smaller N270 amplitude was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Since N270 is thought to index cognitive function in different domains, including attention and memory, our results suggest that individuals with GAD have an impaired cognitive function, particularly in selective attention and working memory. These cognitive deficits may have clinical significance in subjects with GAD and should be considered in treatment planning. © 2015 Yang et al.

Meng D.-W.,Capital Medical University | Meng D.-W.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation | Liu H.-G.,Capital Medical University | Liu H.-G.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation | And 6 more authors.
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2016

Background: The antiepileptic effect of the anterior thalamic nuclei (ANT) stimulation has been demonstrated; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic ANT stimulation on hippocampal neuron loss and apoptosis. Methods: Sixty‑four rats were divided into four groups: The control group, the kainic acid (KA) group, the sham‑deep brain stimulation (DBS) group, and the DBS group. KA was used to induce epilepsy. Seizure count and latency to the first spontaneous seizures were calculated. Nissl staining was used to analyze hippocampal neuronal loss. Polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were conducted to assess the expression of caspase‑3 (Casp3), B‑cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl2), and Bcl2‑associated X protein (Bax) in the hippocampal CA3 region. One‑way analysis of variance was used to determine the differences between the four groups. Results: The latency to the first spontaneous seizures in the DBS group was significantly longer than that in the KA group (27.50 ± 8.05 vs. 16.38 ± 7.25 days, P = 0.0005). The total seizure number in the DBS group was also significantly reduced (DBS vs. KA group: 11.75 ± 6.80 vs. 23.25 ± 7.72, P = 0.0002). Chronic ANT‑DBS reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA3 region (DBS vs. KA group: 23.58 ± 6.34 vs. 13.13 ± 4.00, P = 0.0012). After chronic DBS, the relative mRNA expression level of Casp3 was decreased (DBS vs. KA group: 1.18 ± 0.37 vs. 2.09 ± 0.46, P = 0.0003), and the relative mRNA expression level of Bcl2 was increased (DBS vs. KA group: 0.92 ± 0.21 vs. 0.48 ± 0.16, P = 0.0004). The protein expression levels of CASP3 (DBS vs. KA group: 1.25 ± 0.26 vs. 2.49 ± 0.38, P < 0.0001) and BAX (DBS vs. KA group: 1.57 ± 0.49 vs. 2.80 ± 0.63, P = 0.0012) both declined in the DBS group whereas the protein expression level of BCL2 (DBS vs. KA group: 0.78 ± 0.32 vs. 0.36 ± 0.17, P = 0.0086) increased in the DBS group. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that chronic ANT stimulation could exert a neuroprotective effect on hippocampal neurons. This neuroprotective effect is likely to be mediated by the inhibition of apoptosis in the epileptic hippocampus. © 2016 Chinese Medical Journal.

Xue Q.,Capital Medical University | Xue Q.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation | Wang Z.-Y.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Xiong X.-C.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | And 4 more authors.
Journal of International Medical Research | Year: 2013

ObjectiveTo determine the role of altered brain connectivity in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES).MethodsPatients with PNES and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Participants underwent neuropsychological evaluation (anxiety, depression and dissociation) and interictal scalp electroencephalography (EEG). A brain network was constructed. Between-group differences in clustering coefficient and global efficiency were analysed.ResultsPatients with PNES (n = 15) had significantly decreased clustering coefficients in the gamma band compared with controls (n = 15). Difference topology revealed that patients with PNES had decreased long linkage between the frontal region and other regions compared with controls. There were no significant between-group differences in global efficiency. Neuropsychological scores were significantly higher in patients than controls, but there were no correlations with network properties.ConclusionAltered brain connectivity in patients with PNES suggests an underlying pathophysiological mechanism. EEG and network analysis allow noninvasive exploration of the neurological processes of this disease. © The Author(s) 2013.

Ding Y.,Capital Medical University | Ding Y.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation | Hu Y.-Q.,Capital Medical University | Hu Y.-Q.,Beijing Geriatric Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2016

Background: The brain stem is found to be impaired in multiple system atrophy-cerebellar types (MSA-C). Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is reported as a marker of progressive brain stem dysfunction. Few systematic studies about the sleep disturbances in MSA-C patients combined with or without RBD were reported. This study aimed to explore the polysomnographic (PSG) features of sleep disturbances between MSA-C patients with and without RBD. Methods: Totally, 46 MSA-C patients (23 with RBD, and 23 without RBD) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent a structured interview for their demographic data, history of sleep pattern, and movement disorders; and then, overnight video-PSG was performed in each patient. All the records were evaluated by specialists at the Sleep Medicine Clinic for RBD and the Movement Disorder Clinic for MSA-C. The Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables, and the Chi-square test for categorical variables were used in this study. Results: MSA-C patients with RBD had younger visiting age (52.6 ± 7.4 vs. 56.7 ± 6.0 years, P = 0.046) and shorter duration of the disease (12.0 [12.0, 24.0] vs. 24.0 [14.0, 36.0] months, P = 0.009) than MSA-C patients without RBD. MSA-C with RBD had shorter REM sleep latency (111.7 ± 48.2 vs. 157.0 ± 68.8 min, P = 0.042), higher percentage of REM sleep (14.9% ±4.0% vs. 10.0% ± 3.2%, P = 0.019), and lower Stage I (9.5% ±7.2% vs. 15.9% ±8.0%, P = 0.027) than MSA-C without RBD. Moreover, MSA-C patients with RBD had more decreased sleep efficiency (52.4% ±12.6% vs. 65.8% ±15.9%, P = 0.029) than that without RBD. Conclusions: In addition to the RBD, MSA-C patients with RBD had other more severe sleep disturbances than those without RBD. The sleep disorders of MSA patients might be associated with the progress of the disease. © 2016 Chinese Medical Journal.

Xu P.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Xiong X.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Xue Q.,Capital Medical University | Xue Q.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation | And 8 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2014

Discriminating psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) from epilepsy is challenging, and a reliable and automatic classification remains elusive. In this study, we develop an approach for discriminating between PNES and epilepsy using the common spatial pattern extracted from the brain network topology (SPN). The study reveals that 92% accuracy, 100% sensitivity, and 80% specificity were reached for the classification between PNES and focal epilepsy. The newly developed SPN of resting EEG may be a promising tool to mine implicit information that can be used to differentiate PNES from epilepsy. © 1964-2012 IEEE.

Liu C.,Capital Medical University | Liu C.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation | Zhang R.,Capital Medical University | Zhang G.,Capital Medical University | And 6 more authors.
Epilepsy Research | Year: 2016

Objective In some cases of single focus epilepsy, conventional video electroencephalography (EEG) cannot reveal the epileptogenic focus even when intracranial electrodes are used. Here, we tested whether analyzing high frequency oscillations (HFOs) can be used to determine the ictal onset zone in suspected bitemporal epilepsy and improve seizure outcome. Methods We prospectively studied 13 patients with refractory temporal seizures who were treated over a 4-year period and underwent bilateral placement of intracranial electrodes. Subdural strips were used in all cases, and depth electrodes were implanted into mesial temporal lobes in 10 patients. The mean patient age was 30.92 years, and 30.7% of patients were male. Patients were monitored by conventional and wide-band frequency amplifiers. Results Conventional invasive EEG monitoring of interictal periods showed bilateral epileptiform abnormalities in 12 patients (92.3%) and unilateral epileptiform abnormalities in one (7.7%), and monitoring of ictal periods revealed unilateral seizure origins in nine patients (69.2%) and bilateral origins in four (30.8%). In contrast, high frequency invasive EEG monitoring of interictal periods showed bilateral HFOs in seven patients (53.8%) and unilateral HFOs in six (46.2%), and monitoring of ictal periods revealed unilateral HFOs in all 10 patients who were tested. Three patients were not monitored during ictal periods because of time limitations. All 13 patients subsequently underwent a standard unilateral temporal lobectomy and have been followed-up for a minimum of 12 months. Eleven (84%) had a Class I outcome, one (8%) a Class II outcome, and one a Class III outcome. Significance Bilateral placement of subdural strip and depth electrodes for seizure monitoring in patients with suspected bitemporal epilepsy is both safe and effective. Monitoring high frequency oscillations can help determine the laterality of the onset zone when localization using conventional EEG or brain MRI fails. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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