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Zhang H.-A.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Target Identification and Drug Screening | Zhang H.-A.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhang H.-A.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Gao M.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Target Identification and Drug Screening | And 14 more authors.
Anatomical Record | Year: 2013

Embolism is responsible for at least 20% of all stroke and half of cerebral infarctions. A number of animal models have been developed to mimic thromboembolic stroke. However, little aimed directly at hippocampal damage and cognitive function. In the present study, three sizes of emboli (150-178 μm, 74-124 μm, and 48-74 μm) were employed to induce thromboembolic stroke model in rats. Results showed that the diameter of the particle was critical for animal behavioral and histopathological consequences. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining revealed that CA1 and CA2-3, which are two of the main hippocampal subdivisions were injured seriously, especially induced by emboli(48-74 μm). At 24 hr, the neurological deficit scores showed that emboli injection could cause significant neurological deficit, and the increase of neurological deficit scores correlated well to the diameter of emboli. At 60 days, emboli(150-178 μm) and emboli(48-74 μm) lead to obvious cognitive impairment, which correlated well to the hippocampal CA1 injury. Our research might be helpful to choose suitable size of emboli to induce animal model to research subcortical ischemia and vascular dementia. However, cognitive alterations and cerebral injury following different sizes of emboli injection in rats remains a topic for future investigation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Qiang G.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yang X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yang X.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Target Identification and Drug Screening | Xuan Q.,Capital Medical University | And 16 more authors.
American Journal of Chinese Medicine | Year: 2014

Type 2 diabetes patients have an increased risk of developing hepatic fibrosis. Salvianolic acid A (SalA) has been reported to be a strong polyphenolic anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of SalA on the pathological progression of hepatic fibrosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Type 2 diabetic animal model with hepatic fibrosis was developed by a high-sucrose, HFD and low-dose STZ injection (i.p.). Diabetic rats were randomly divided into SalA group (0.3 mg/kg/day) and diabetic control groups fed with a HFD. After administration for four months, SalA reversed the hyperlipidemia and reduced hepatic triglyceride (TG). Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) and Picro acid-Sirius red staining results indicated that SalA significantly alleviated the lesions of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, with the reduction of type I and III collagens. The expression of α-smooth-muscle-actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the liver were markedly down-regulated by SalA treatment. TUNEL staining showed that SalA reduced apoptosis in hepatocytes. In addition, SalA improved hepatic mitochondrial respiratory function in diabetic rats. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that SalA could prevent the pathological progression of hepatic fibrosis in HFD-fed and STZ-induced diabetic rats. The underlying mechanisms may be involved in reducing oxidative stress, suppressing α-SMA and TGF-β1 expression, as well as exerting anti-apoptotic and mitochondria-protective effects. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company and Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine.

Qiang G.,Peking Union Medical College | Yang X.,Peking Union Medical College | Yang X.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Target Identification and Drug Screening | Shi L.,GeneQuantum Healthcare Suzhou Co. | And 12 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM) characterized by hyperglycemia contributes to macrovascular and microvascular complications. Salvianolic acid A (SalA) is a polyphenolic compound isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about its antidiabetic effect. Our study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effect of SalA and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic mice and high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats received SalA treatment. Blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), 24-h food and water intake were monitored. In vitro, glucose consumption and uptake were measured in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Mitochondrial function was detected in hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondria. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt were analyzed by western blot. Results: In both type 1 and type 2 diabetic animals, SalA lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fed blood glucose in dose-dependent manner, as well as reduced 24-h food and water intake. In vitro, SalA caused dose-dependent increase in glucose consumption and enhanced glucose uptake. SalA significantly increased ATP production from 10 min to 12 h in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Interestingly, SalA decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SalA improved hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, increased ATP production, and concurrently decreased MMP. In particularly, SalA activated AMPK phosphorylation through Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ)/AMPK signaling pathway, independent of liver kinase 1 (LKB1)/AMPK pathway. However, SalA didn't show any effect on insulin secretagogue and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion: SalA exhibits the antidiabetic effects in diabetic animal models through improving mitochondrial function, increasing ATP production, and decreasing MMP via CaMKKβ/AMPK signaling pathway. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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