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Liang J.,Control Iron and Steel Research Institute, China | Liang J.,Advanced Technology and Materials Co. | Liang J.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Coating Targets | Zhou W.,Control Iron and Steel Research Institute, China | And 9 more authors.
Xiyou Jinshu/Chinese Journal of Rare Metals | Year: 2014

TiAl and TiAlN coatings were deposited on cemented carbide with commercial Ti50Al50 alloy target by magnetron sputtering technology. The existing forms of Ti and Al elements were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the adhesive strength and hardness were measured by nano indentation and adhesion testing. The results showed that Ti and Al dual-phase existed in TiAl target, and Ti grains were embedded into the Al matrix; single-phase Ti and binary-phase Ti3Al alloy were found in TiAl coating; cubic TiN and hexagon AlN phases existed in TiAlN coating. In the preparation of TiAl coating and TiAlN coating, the sputtering process belonged to the generation of target metal ions, and the existing forms of Ti and Al elements changed from the dual-phase to the metal ions with certain energy. The deposition process belonged to the recombination of Ti and Al elements, with the formation of alloy phase without reactive gas and formation of TiN and AlN with the function of nitrogen gas. Al atoms substituted Ti atoms in TiN based phase and AlN phase formed, which could improve the mechanical properties of the coatings. The adhesive strength of the coating changed from HF-1 to HF-2, resulting in better adhesive strength. Source


Zhou W.,Control Iron and Steel Research Institute, China | Zhou W.,Advanced Technology and Materials Co. | Zhou W.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Coating Targets | Liang J.,Control Iron and Steel Research Institute, China | And 9 more authors.
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2014

The aim of this work is to illuminate the influence of two widely applied target types, i.e. powder TiAl target produced by powder metallurgy technique and smelting TiAl target produced by vacuum smelting technique, on the structure and properties of the TiAlN coatings. The characteristics, such as deposition rate, microstructure, surface morphology and mechanical properties, of TiAlN coatings prepared by the two targets at various nitrogen flow rates were analyzed in detail. The deposition rate achieved with the powder targets was ∼30% higher than that obtained from the smelting targets. TiAlN coatings deposited by two types of targets have totally different surface morphology. The surface roughness of the coating with powder target was 20% lower than with smelting target. The number of metallic macro-particles in the coating prepared by powder target was fewer than that by smelting target as a function of the nitrogen flow rates. The phase of coatings is related to the nitrogen flow rate. When the nitrogen flow rate is 20 sccm, both coatings have a phase c-TiN. When the nitrogen flow rate is >20 sccm, both coatings exhibits a stable phase Ti2AlN. The formation of Ti2AlN was attributed to the nitrogen concentration in the coatings and the elevated deposition temperature. The coatings grown from powder targets showed superiority in adhesion strength but less well-behaved in hardness, which is in contrast to those synthesized from the smelting targets. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Liang J.,Control Iron and Steel Research Institute, China | Liang J.,Advanced Technology and Materials Co. | Liang J.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Coating Targets | Zhou W.,Control Iron and Steel Research Institute, China | And 9 more authors.
Zhenkong Kexue yu Jishu Xuebao/Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Two types of TiAlalloy targets, Targets A and B, were fabricatedbypowder metallurgy and vacuum smelting, respectively. The TiAlN coatings were synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering of different TiAl alloy targets. The coatings were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and conventional mechanical probes. The results show that the target type strongly affects the microstructures, phase structures and mechanical properties of the TiAlN coatings. For example, Target-A resulted in 44% higher deposition rate, 24% lower surface roughness, smaller and fewer metallic micro-droplet than Target-B. Deposited with Target-A, the TiAlN coatings consisted of stable single-phased columnar Ti2AlN grains, while synthesized with target-B, the coatings contained Ti2AlN and c-TiN phases. Besides, when it comes to hardness and interfacial adhesion, the smelted target outperforms the “powder target” possibly because of their differences in texture and thermal conductivity. Source

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