Zhang P.,Capital Medical University |
Guo R.,Capital Medical University |
Li Z.,Capital Medical University |
Xiao D.,Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine |
And 3 more authors.
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014
The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of echo tracking to evaluation of common carotid artery wall elasticity in smokers and the effects of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia on common carotid artery wall elasticity in smokers. Subjects were divided into three groups based on smoking status and presence of complications: group A (healthy control group), group B1 (simple smoking group) and group B2 (smoking with complications group). Complications included one or several symptoms of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery was measured with ultrasound, and wall stiffness index(β), pressure-strain elasticity modulus (Ep), arterial compliance, augmentation index and local pulse wave velocity (PWVβ) were measured with echo tracking. We also determined the systolic (Ds) and diastolic (Dd) lumen diameters of the common carotid artery and systolic (Ps) and diastolic (Pd) pressures. The differences in β, Ep and PWVβ among the three groups in this study were statistically significant (p<0.05). Augmentation index was increased in group B2 compared with groups B1 and A, with the differences being statistically significant (p<0.05). Differences in augmentation index between groups B1 and A, differences in arterial compliance among the three groups and differences in intima-media thickness among the three groups were not statistically significant (p>0.05), but differences in Ds and Dd among the three groups were statistically significant (p<0.05). Differences in Ps and Pd between groups A and B1 were not statistically significant (p>0.05), whereas those between groups B1 and B2 were statistically significant (p<0.05). Echo tracking can be used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of smoking on common carotid artery wall elasticity and the effects of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia on common carotid artery wall elasticity in smokers. © 2014 .
Liu Y.,Capital Medical University |
Liu Y.,Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine |
Liu Y.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Respiratory and Pulmonary Circulation |
Cao B.,Capital Medical University |
And 6 more authors.
Microbial Drug Resistance | Year: 2011
From June 2003 to December 2009, 98 isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were cultured from clinical specimens taken from patients admitted to a 1,500-bed tertiary-care teaching hospital in Beijing, China. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. We investigated the structure of the vanA gene cluster and the distribution of the virulence markers esp, hyl, gelE, asa1, and cylA by polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicate that multilocus sequence typing revealed five novel sequence types and one new allele. VRE faecium (VREfm) isolates were heterogeneous in their vanA cluster types and in the presence of virulence genes. We also observed inconsistency between genotype and phenotype in VREfm isolates. The outbreak with VREfm in our hospital appears polyclonal, whereas VRE faecalis characterization indicated dissemination of a particular clone. After 2007, VRE faecalis was completely replaced by VREfm, which has since been the predominant species in our hospital. VRE appears to be in an evolutionary flux in our hospital. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Kakkar A.K.,University College London |
Cimminiello C.,Ospedale Civile di Vimercate |
Goldhaber S.Z.,Harvard University |
Parakh R.,Medicity |
And 3 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011
BACKGROUND: Although thromboprophylaxis reduces the incidence of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients, an associated reduction in the rate of death from any cause has not been shown. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to assess the effect of subcutaneous enoxaparin (40 mg daily) as compared with placebo - both administered for 10±4 days in patients who were wearing elastic stockings with graduated compression - on the rate of death from any cause among hospitalized, acutely ill medical patients at participating sites in China, India, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, the Philippines, and Tunisia. Inclusion criteria were an age of at least 40 years and hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure, severe systemic infection with at least one risk factor for venous thromboembolism, or active cancer. The primary efficacy outcome was the rate of death from any cause at 30 days after randomization. The primary safety outcome was the rate of major bleeding during and up to 48 hours after the treatment period. RESULTS: A total of 8307 patients were randomly assigned to receive enoxaparin plus elastic stockings with graduated compression (4171 patients) or placebo plus elastic stockings with graduated compression (4136 patients) and were included in the intentionto-treat population. The rate of death from any cause at day 30 was 4.9% in the enoxaparin group as compared with 4.8% in the placebo group (risk ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8 to 1.2; P = 0.83). The rate of major bleeding was 0.4% in the enoxaparin group and 0.3% in the placebo group (risk ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.7 to 3.1; P = 0.35). CONCLUSIONS: The use of enoxaparin plus elastic stockings with graduated compression, as compared with elastic stockings with graduated compression alone, was not associated with a reduction in the rate of death from any cause among hospitalized, acutely ill medical patients. (Funded by Sanofi; LIFENOX ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00622648.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
Wang C.,Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine |
Wang C.,Beijing Hospital Ministry of Health |
Cho B.,Seoul National University |
Xiao D.,Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine |
And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical Practice | Year: 2013
Aims To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of varenicline for smoking cessation among Asian adult smokers in real-world clinical practice. Methods A multicentre, prospective, non-comparative, observational study conducted in China, India, Philippines and Korea. Adult smokers, willing to make a quit attempt, who reached a joint decision with the investigators to take varenicline received 1 mg twice daily (after 1-week titration) for 12 weeks. No exclusion criteria were specified. Effectiveness evaluations included smoking abstinence status for the 7-day period before the Week 12 visit and the last observed study visit, determined by verbal reporting using a nicotine use inventory and carbon monoxide levels if part of usual practice (end of study only). The safety profile of varenicline was also assessed. Results Of 1377 subjects enrolled in the study, 1373 (99.7%) received varenicline and were evaluated for safety and effectiveness. Overall, 46.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 43.73-49.07] of subjects successfully quit smoking by the end of the treatment phase at Week 12. When analysed by country, 57.1% (95% CI: 53.55-60.65) of subjects from China, 52.8% (95% CI: 45.21-60.25) of subjects from India, 51.0% (95% CI: 36.60-65.25) of subjects from Philippines and 20.3% (95% CI: 16.29-24.73) of subjects from Korea had quit smoking at Week 12. The most commonly reported treatment-related adverse event was nausea (11.5%). Conclusions This study demonstrates the effectiveness and acceptable safety profile of varenicline for smoking cessation in a real-world setting among Asian populations, with results consistent with those of varenicline randomised controlled trials. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Shen Q.,Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine |
Chen B.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology |
Xiao Z.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology |
Zhao L.,Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine |
And 5 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2015
Paracrine factors are currently considered to be the major mechanism through which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exert their actions. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of conditioned medium (CM) from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on bleo-mycin (BLM)-induced lung injury and fibrosis, both in vitro and in vivo. A549 human non-small cell lung cancer epithelial cells were cultured in serum-free medium, or MSC-CM, both with or without BLM. The protective effects of MSC-CM was determined by MTT assay to assess cell viability and Annexin V-PE to assess apoptosis. Rats were intratracheally injected with MSC-CM, saline, or conditioned medium from fibroblasts on day 0 and day 3 after intratracheal administration of BLM, and were sacrificed on day 28. Lung injury and fibrosis were assessed by histological assessment, Ashcroft score, and hydroxyproline assay; lung cell apoptosis was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. In comparison to the control group (0.17±0.01), 8 and 16% MSC-CM had a significant stimulatory effect on A549 cellular proliferation (0.24±0.03 and 0.24±0.04, respectively, P<0.01). A549 cells cultured with MSC-CM were protected from BLM-induced apoptosis, 23.43±3.76% vs. 38.06±4.32%; (P<0.05). In the BLM-challenged rats, MSC-CM was shown to protect against lung fibrosis in terms of lung inflammation, fibrotic scores, collagen deposition, and cell apoptosis. This data suggests that MSCs are capable of protecting against lung injury and fibrosis both in vitro and in vivo through a paracrine anti-inflammatory mechanism. MSC-CM may provide a novel approach for the treatment of lung fibrosis.
Sun B.,Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine
Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases | Year: 2011
To analyze the clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics of tracheobronchomegaly (TBM, Mounier-Kuhn syndrome). The clinical, radiological and pathological characteristics of 3 cases of TBM were analyzed, and the literatures were reviewed. All 3 patients were men, between the age of 58 - 71 years old. From the onset to diagnosis, the shortest time was 2 months, and the longest 43 years. The most usual presentations included recurrent cough and sputum, and occasional haemoptysis. In the advanced stage of the disease, patients would present shortness of breath and the symptoms associated with respiratory failure because of the reduction in pulmonary function. All the diagnoses were confirmed by X-ray and CT of the chest finding that the trachea and the main bronchi dilated markedly. After anti-infection treatment, all patients recovered. Mounier-Kuhn syndrome was a rare congenital abnormality characterized by atrophy or absence of elastic fibers and thinning of smooth muscle layer in the trachea and main bronchi. These airways were thus flaccid and markedly dilated on inspiration and collapsed on expiration. The usual presentation was recurrent respiratory tract infections with a broad spectrum of functional impairment ranging from minimal disease with preservation of lung function to severe disease in the form of bronchiectasis, emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis, ultimately culminating in respiratory failure and death. Computed tomography scan of the chest was used for the diagnosis. Treatment was mainly supportive with chest physiotherapy and antibiotics. Mounier-Kunh syndrome should be suspected in patient with recurrent respiratory infections and chronic sputum production. A careful analysis of the central airways at the chest radiograph of these patients is required.
Liu Y.M.,Capital Medical University |
Liu Y.M.,Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine |
Li B.B.,Capital Medical University |
Zhang Y.Y.,Capital Medical University |
And 5 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014
Recently, the newly emerged hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (hvKP) has caused great concern globally, but the clinical features and molecular characteristics of bacteremia caused by hvKP are rarely reported in mainland China. Seventy patients with K. pneumoniae bacteremia were investigated to study the clinical features of hvKP infection from 2008 till 2012 in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital. The molecular characteristics of the hvKP strains were also studied using PCR, multilocus sequence typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methods. hvKP was identified in 31.4% of the patients with K. pneumoniae bacteremia, which displayed 4 serotypes (K1, K2, K20, and K57). Patients with hvKP infection tended to have no underlying diseases compared to those with classic K. pneumoniae (cKP). More hvKP-positive patients (95.5%) had community-acquired infection than did cKP-infected patients (35.4%) (P < 0.001). The 30-day mortality rate was lower in hvKP-infected patients than in cKP-infected patients (4.5% compared to 16.7%). Resistance to tested antimicrobials was significantly greater in cKP- than in hvKP-infected patients. Two extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing hvKP strains were found. Seven novel sequence types (STs) and 4 new alleles of K. pneumoniae were revealed. A strong correlation was found between two STs (ST23, ST1265) and the K1 serotype. The hvKP isolates (n = 22) had 14 different PFGE patterns, and among them 10 K1 isolates shared similar PFGE patterns. The emerging hvKP strain was prevalent in patients with severe community-acquired infections in healthy individuals in China. Identification of ESBL-producing hvKP strains in hvKP-infected patients will facilitate clinical management of hvKP infection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Xu X.,Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine |
Xu X.,Capital Medical University |
Dai H.,Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine |
Dai H.,Capital Medical University
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2012
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which fully differentiated epithelial cells undergo a phenotypic conversion and assume a mesenchymal cell phenotype, including elongated morphology, enhanced migratory and invasiveness capacity, and greatly increased production of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The EMTs associated with wound healing, tissue regeneration, and organ fibrosis are termed as type 2 EMT. Over the past two decades, emerging evidence suggested that injured epithelial cells, via type 2 EMT, may serve as important sources of fibroblasts and contribute to organ fibrosis, such as kidney, liver, lung and eyes. There is perhaps no doubt that adult epithelial cells can undergo EMT in vitro in response to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and other inflammatory or pro-fibrotic stimuli. However, whether type 2 EMT really occurs in vivo, whethers it is actually a source of functional and activated interstitial fibroblasts and whether it contributes to tissue fibrosis have already been the subjects of heated debate. In this review, we will describe the main features of EMT, the major findings of type 2 EMT in vitro, the evidences for and against type 2 EMT in vivo and discuss the heterogeneity and pitfalls of the techniques used to detect EMT during fibrotic diseases. We suggest that in order to ascertain the existence of type 2 EMT in vivo, different proper phenotype markers of epithelial and mesenchymal cells should be jointly used and cell lineage tracking techniques should be standardized and avoid false positives. Finally, we believe that if EMT really occurs and contributes to tissue fibrosis, efforts should be made to block or reverse EMT to attenuate fibrotic process.
Wang W.,Capital Medical University |
Wang W.,Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine
Journal of Thoracic Disease | Year: 2016
It has been revealed by many studies that air pollution is one of the important inducements of asthma exacerbations. In addition, meteorological conditions such as high atmospheric pressure, low temperature, low humidity and large diurnal amplitude can directly induce asthma. Meanwhile, meteorological conditions play an important role in the diffusion, dilution and accumulation of air pollution. This article reviewed research progress in the impact of polluted meteorological conditions on the incidence of asthma. © Journal of Thoracic Disease. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Capital Medical University and Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine
Type: | Journal: The clinical respiratory journal | Year: 2015
To investigate urokinase-(uPA) and tissue-type (tPA) plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) levels in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and to determine the relationship between fibrinolytic system and pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary function.Seventy-nine patients with IPF were included. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood samples were collected. The concentrations of tPA, uPA and PAI-1 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Doppler echocardiography was used to detect tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient (TRPG) to estimate pulmonary arterial pressure.BALF tPA elevated (P<0.005), circulatory PAI-1 decreased (P=0.05) and the ratio of uPA and PAI-1 decreased (P=0.01) in BALF in IPF patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) compared to those without PH. Positive linear correlations were found: BALF tPA and TRPG (r=0.558, P=0.013); the predicted percentage of diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide adjustments for alveolar volume and BALF uPA (r=0.319, P=0.035). Negative linear correlations were as follows: BALF PAI-1 and the predicted percentage of VCThe change of alveolar fibrolytic system in IPF, especially the uPA reduction and the PAI-1elevation, contributes to the deterioration of lung function. During the lung injury initiating fibrosis, tPA and PAI-1 might be leaked out of the pulmonary capillaries into alveoli, resulting in their elevation in alveoli and reduction in circulation, and finally contributing to the development of PH in IPF.