Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture

Beijing, China

Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture

Beijing, China
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Zhang X.B.,Agricultural University of Hebei | Sun S.J.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Zheng N.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Guo J.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2017

Knowledge of variations and sources of urban atmospheric CO2 is important to determine energy saving and emission reduction policies. In the present study, air CO2 concentration and stable carbon (δ13 C) isotope ratios on the Fourth Ring Road (FRR) and in the green-space system 100 m from FRR were measured using an off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique in heating and non-heating seasons. The CO2 variations and different source contributions were analyzed with the Keeling plot method and IsoSource software. The results showed CO2 from different sources had significantly different δ13 C values. The δ13 C values from high to low were noted from soil respiration (-18.92‰), plant respiration (-23.40‰), coal combustion exhaust gas (-24.10‰), motor vehicle exhaust gas (-28.14‰), and natural gas (-33.34‰). The CO2concentrations of the FRR and green-space system in the heating season were 26.2% and 41.2% higher than those in the non-heating season, respectively. There was a significant difference of CO2 concentration between the FRR and green-space system in the non-heating season, but no difference in the heating season. The CO2 concentration had an obvious daily change and two peaks at 6:00 and 20:00 in the heating season. The CO2 concentration of FRR was highest at the bottom of the observation tower and decreased with increased height, but the CO2 concentration of the green- space system was highest at 8 m. In the heating season, the CO2 concentration had two peaks at 8:00 and 19:00, with a similar daily trend to that of traffic volume. CO2 concentrations of both the FRR and green-space system decreased with increasing height. However, there were obviously different sources between the FRR and green-space systems. The CO2 of the FRR was mainly from motor vehicle exhaust gases, but that of the green-space system mostly came from soil and plant respiration in the non-heating season. However, there was no difference in CO2 sources between the FRR and green-space system, and most sources were coal-fired emissions and motor vehicle exhaust gases. © 2017, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.


Zhang W.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Song L.,Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture | Teixeira da Silva J.A.,P.O. Box 7 | Sun H.,ShenYang Agricultural University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The effects of different media, temperatures and plant growth regulators on the ex vitro propagation of twin-scale cuttings as well as on the relationship between starch degradation and bulblet development of Hippeastrum vittatum cv. 'Red lion' were studied. Sawdust was the most optimal medium for the propagation of twin-scale cuttings resulting in the lowest percentage of rotting scales and the best quality bulblets. Furthermore, 25°C was a more suitable temperature than 30 or 20°C. Gibberellic acid (GA3), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or 1-naphthyleneacetic acid (NAA) did not result in scale propagation and bulblet development. In particular, NAA treatment significantly increased the frequency of rotten scales. During bulblet formation and development, starch content in the mother scales declined earlier and more rapidly, especially in the outer scale of twin scales. The culture of scales at 30°C resulted in a distinct increase in the consumption of starch in the scale. The starch content in bulblets increased during development. Starch accumulation in bulblets at 25°C was most remarkable at the last stage of development. The dominant soluble sugars in the bulbs of H. vittatum were fructose, sucrose and glucose, fructose content being highest in the mother scales. However, the key soluble sugar in the bulblets was sucrose and its content increased linearly over the first 50 days. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Wang Y.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Wang Y.,Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture | Qiao M.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Liu Y.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2012

The possible health risks of heavy metals contamination to local population through food chain were evaluated in Beijing and Tianjin city cluster, China, where have a long history of sewage irrigation. The transfer factors (TF) for heavy metals from soil to vegetables for six elements including Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, As and Cd were calculated and the pollution load indexes (PLI) were also assessed. Results indicate that only Cd exceeded the maximum acceptable limit in these sites. So far, the heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables were all below the permissible limits set by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China and World Health Organization. The transfer factors of six heavy metals showed the trend as Cd > Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cr, which were dependent on the vegetable species. The estimated dietary intakes of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, As and Cd were far below the tolerable limits and the target hazard quotient (THQ) values were less than 1, which suggested that the health risks of heavy metals exposure through consuming vegetables were generally assumed to be safe. © 2012 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Tang Y.,China Astronaut Research and Training Center | Gao F.,China Astronaut Research and Training Center | Guo S.,China Astronaut Research and Training Center | Li F.,Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2015

Abstract The objectives of this research were to investigate the morphological, physiological and nutritional characteristics of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Rome) under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions. Plants were grown under two levels of total pressures (101 and 30 kPa) and three levels of oxygen partial pressures (21, 6 and 2 kPa) for 20 days. Hypoxia (6 or 2 kPa) not only significantly inhibited the growth of lettuce plants by decreasing biomass, leaf area, root/shoot ratio, water content, the contents of minerals and organic compounds (vitamin C, crude protein and crude fat), but also destroyed the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast. The activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of glutathione and the total antioxidant capacity significantly decreased due to hypoxia. Hypobaria (30 kPa) did not markedly enhance the biomass, but it increased leaf area, root/shoot ratio and relative water content. Hypobaria also decreased the contents of total phenols, malondialdehyde and total carbohydrate and protected the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast under hypoxia. Furthermore, the activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of minerals and organic compounds markedly increased under hypobaria. This study demonstrates that hypobaria (30 kPa) does not increase the growth of lettuce plants, but it enhances plant's stress resistance and nutritional quality under hypoxia. © 2015 IAA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tang Y.,China Astronaut Research and Training Center | Gao F.,China Astronaut Research and Training Center | Yu Q.,China Astronaut Research and Training Center | Guo S.,China Astronaut Research and Training Center | Li F.,Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to investigate how hypobaria and hypoxia affect the uptake kinetics of NH4 + and NO3 - by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Rome). Lettuce seedlings were grown in Erlenmeyer flasks containing NH4 + and NO3 - solutions at seven concentrations (0.05-2.0mmoll-1) for 10h under 101 and 30kPa of total atmospheric pressures (TP) and 21, 6, and 2kPa of O2 partial pressures (pO2), respectively. Compared with 21kPa pO2, hypoxia (6 and 2kPa pO2) not only significantly inhibited the uptake of NH4 + or NO3 - by lettuce seedlings, but also decreased the values of maximum uptake rate (Vmax), Michaelis constant (Km), and Vmax/Km of NH4 + or NO3 - uptake and the relative growth rate (RGR) as well as the N content of lettuce seedlings grown in NH4 + solution under two levels of TP. However, the N content of lettuce seedlings grown in NO3 - solution was reduced under 30kPa TP. Under hypoxic conditions (6 and 2kPa pO2), hypobaria (30kPa) markedly enhanced the absorption of NH4 + and NO3 - by lettuce seedlings, and increased the values of Vmax and Vmax/Km of NH4 + and NO3 - uptake as well as the value of Km in NH4 + uptake by improving O2 supply to the roots of lettuce seedlings. However, the value of Km for NO3 - uptake decreased under the same conditions. The velocity of NO3 - uptake by lettuce seedlings was higher than that of NH4 + under 101kPa TP and 21kPa pO2 conditions. The adverse effect of hypoxia (6 and 2kPa pO2) on NO3 - uptake by lettuce seedlings was greater than that on NH4 + uptake under two levels of TP. The present study indicated that the uptake of NH4 + and NO3 - and the growth of lettuce seedlings were improved by 30kPa hypobaria under the same pO2. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Xie J.-F.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Xie J.-F.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xie J.-F.,Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture | Guo J.,Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2016

In this study, the spatial distribution of fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) of vegetation in Beijing during 2010-2012 was analyzed based on the MODIS-FPAR data with a resolution of 1 km and the functional classification of vegetation. The yearly dynamics of FPAR of different vegetation types were also investigated. Furthermore, the correlation between FPAR and leaf area index (LAI) was explored. The results showed that, there was a spatially descended trend from the northeast mountains to the central urban area of Beijing. The annual average FPAR of different vegetation types changed little during 2010-2012. These values varied in the ranges of 0.42-0.44, 0.38-0.39, 0.32-0.33, and 0.21-0.22 for coniferous forest, broadleaf forest, grassland, and crop, respectively. However, the range of variation was big for each vegetation type within the year. There was significant linear or logarithm relationship between FPAR and LAI of each vegetation type. Additionally, the smooth time series of MODIS-FPAR of vegetation types could better reflect seasonal variation, which was generated by Savitzky-Golay filtering in software Timesat. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Xie J.-F.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Xie J.-F.,Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture | Xu R.,Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014

In this paper, the monthly spatial dynamics of vegetation LAI during 2010-2012 in Beijing, China, were estimated based on the MODIS-LAI data and the functional classification of vegetation. The yearly dynamics and differences of vegetation LAI of various vegetations were also investigated based on Geographic Information System and Timesat software. The results suggested that the higher values of monthly vegetation LAI during 2010-2012 mainly occurred in the forest zones of the northwest and northeast mountains as well as the northern areas of Huairou District. The spatially descended trend was found from the northeast mountains to southwest area and then to the central Beijing City. Additionally, the changes of annual average LAI of various vegetations were not obvious during the study period. The annual average of LAI varied in the ranges of 1. 45-1. 50, 1. 24-1. 27, 0. 90-0. 92, and 0. 48-0. 51 for coniferous forest, broadleaf forest, grassland, and crop, respectively. The results of Savitzky-Golay filtering indicated that the growth trajectories of coniferous forest, broadleaf forest, grass, and crop could be reflected by the intermonthly variation of LAI. © 2014, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Ecology. All rights reserved.


Zhang J.,Beijing Forestry University | Wu J.,Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture | Liu Y.,Beijing Forestry University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2016

A comprehensive investigation of the levels, spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban green space soils of Beijing, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. The objective of this study was to determine concentration, spatial distribution, and health risk of 15 PAHs in 121 surface soil (0–5 cm) samples collected from four types of green space, such as park green space (PGS), roadside green space (RDS), residential green space (RGS), and attached green space (AGS). Results showed that the highest concentrations of 15 PAHs was in soils of RDS, followed by RGS, PGS, and AGS. The level of PAHs pollution was seriously and mainly distributed in the central and southwest of the city. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) associated with exposures to PAHs in soil was calculated separately for children and adults under normal and extreme conditions. The results showed that ILCRs for urban green space soil of Beijing were low under normal conditions. But individual samples are seriously polluted, and its potential health risks cannot be ignored. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Xie J.-F.,Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture | Li Y.-M.,Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2013

Reference to relative literatures in recent years, model building and calculation on volatile organic compound(VOC) emission inventory of plants were summarized in different spatial scales, the total annual VOC emission amounts from Vegetation in China are in the range from 12.4 Tg·a-1 to 28.4 Tg·a-1. For garden plants in Beijing, the annual VOC emissions are approximately 38500 tons C in 2000. Furthermore, in order to determine reduction strategies for Beijing urban atmospheric major pollutants, the contribution of garden plant VOC emissions to the ozone and secondary organic aerosol(SOA) formation was presented, compared to garden plant in the same period, the largest contribution to ozone formation comes from aromatic hydrocarbons and olefin which are exhausted from anthropogenic activity, besides, the aromatic hydrocarbons exhausted from anthropogenic activity is also a main contribution source for the potential formation of SOA. In the meantime, it is suggested to focus on emission control of VOCs which are emitted from urban anthropogenic sources.


PubMed | Beijing Forestry University and Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2016

A comprehensive investigation of the levels, spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban green space soils of Beijing, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. The objective of this study was to determine concentration, spatial distribution, and health risk of 15 PAHs in 121 surface soil (0-5cm) samples collected from four types of green space, such as park green space (PGS), roadside green space (RDS), residential green space (RGS), and attached green space (AGS). Results showed that the highest concentrations of 15 PAHs was in soils of RDS, followed by RGS, PGS, and AGS. The level of PAHs pollution was seriously and mainly distributed in the central and southwest of the city. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) associated with exposures to PAHs in soil was calculated separately for children and adults under normal and extreme conditions. The results showed that ILCRs for urban green space soil of Beijing were low under normal conditions. But individual samples are seriously polluted, and its potential health risks cannot be ignored.

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