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Shan D.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Sun J.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Yakusik A.,UNAIDS Belarus office | Chen Z.,UNAIDS China office | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objective:We assessed HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, one of the highest prevalence regions in China, and describe funding sources and spending for different categories of HIV-related interventions and at-risk populations.Methods:2010 HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture were evaluated based on UNAIDS' National AIDS Spending Assessment methodology.Results:Nearly 93% of total expenditures for HIV/AIDS was contributed by public sources. Of total expenditures, 52.7% was allocated to treatment and care, 24.5% to program management and administration and 19.8% to prevention. Spending on treatment and care was primarily allocated to the treatment of opportunistic infections. Most (40.4%) prevention spending was concentrated on most-at-risk populations, injection drug users (IDUs), sex workers, and men who have sex with men (MSM), with 5.5% allocated to voluntary counseling and testing. Prevention funding allocated for MSM, partners of people living with HIV and prisoners and other confined populations was low compared to the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in these populations. Overall, people living with HIV accounted for 57.57% of total expenditures, while most-at-risk populations accounted for only 7.99%.Conclusions:Our study demonstrated the applicability of NASA for tracking and assessing HIV expenditure in the context of China, it proved to be a useful tool in understanding national HIV/AIDS response from financial aspect, and to assess the extent to which HIV expenditure matches epidemic patterns. Limited funding for primary prevention and prevention for MSM, prisoners and partners of people living with HIV, signal that resource allocation to these key areas must be strengthened. Comprehensive analyses of regional and national funding strategies are needed to inform more equitable, effective and cost-effective HIV/AIDS resource allocation. © 2013 SHAN et al.

Sun J.-F.,Beijing Information and Control Institute | Yuan J.-H.,Beijing Information and Control Institute | Zhao Y.,Beijing Information and Control Institute | Pu H.-B.,Beijing Information and Control Institute
Binggong Xuebao/Acta Armamentarii | Year: 2013

Technical performance measurement(TPM) is a successfully applied tool of technical management of the system development projects. TPM aims to provide an early warning of the adequacy of a design in satisfying selected critical technical parameter requirements. TPM helps the program managers to discover the problems before the achievement of the system. It monitors the technical progress in the process of project development, serving as an input of technical risk analysis and tradeoff research. TPM can visually reflect the technical performance in the form of graphs, which is an effective means of technical and project managements.Practice of Systems Engineering Leading Indicators(SELI) issued by International Council on Systems Engineering(INCOSE) in recent years is the new development of TPM.

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