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Zhou D.F.,Peking University | Tan Y.L.,Beijing HuiLongGuan Hospital
Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry | Year: 2011

The exact causes and pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia are not yet fully understood. Genetically regulated immune mechanisms may play a key role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Viral infection in pregnancy or during post-natal development may cause pathological changes in brain structure and function. The augmentation of antipsychotics with immunosuppressant medications in the treatment of schizophrenia may enhance their therapeutic effect. Future research should assess the therapeutic effect of antibodies and drugs that regulate immune function in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 by Editorial Department of Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry. Source

Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Lui S.S.Y.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Zou L.-Q.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Zou L.-Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2014

Very few studies have examined physical and social anhedonia across the spectrum of schizophrenia. In the present study, we recruited three groups of participants (n=84 in each group): patients with schizophrenia, schizotypy and non-schizotypy as assessed by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). All participants completed the self-reported trait anhedonia scales (the Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale and the Social Anhedonia Scale). The clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). We found that the three groups differed in both physical and social anhedonia. The schizotypy group reported higher levels of physical anhedonia than the non-schizotypy group, and the patient group reported higher levels of physical anhedonia than the schizotypy group. For social anhedonia, the non-schizotypy group differed significantly from both the schizotypy and the patient group, while no significant difference was found between the last two groups. Our findings show that individuals with schizotypy exhibits similar social but not physical anhedonia compared with patients with schizophrenia, which further suggests that decreased pleasure experiences in the social environment may be a valuable target for identification and early intervention in high-risk populations. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Fan N.,Hebei United University | Yang F.-D.,Beijing HuiLongGuan Hospital
Chinese Journal of New Drugs | Year: 2014

Vortioxetine is a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor and mainly used in the therapy of MDD in adults, and it was developed and commercialized by Lundbeck and Takeda Pharmaceutical company. Vortioxetine received its first approval for MDD by the US FDA in September 30, 2013. A large number of clinical researches have confirmed that vortioxetine has good efficacy, safety and tolerability in the therapy of MDD. In this review, we summarized the mechanisms of antidepressant action, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies, clinical trials and adverse effects of vortioxetine. Source

Jiao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Jiao Y.,Fudan University | Phillips M.R.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Phillips M.R.,Emory University | And 6 more authors.
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Background:Attitudes and knowledge about suicide may influence psychiatrists' management of suicidal patients but there has been little research about this issue in China.Methods:We used the Scale of Public Attitudes about Suicide (SPAS) - a 47-item scale developed and validated in China - to assess knowledge about suicide and seven specific attitudes about suicide in a sample of 187 psychiatrists from six psychiatric hospitals in Shanghai. The results were compared to those of 548 urban community members (assessed in a previous study).Results:Compared to urban community members, psychiatrists were more likely to believe that suicide can be prevented and that suicide is an important social problem but they had more stigmatizing beliefs about suicidal individuals and felt less empathy for them. The belief that suicide can be prevented was more common among female psychiatrists than male psychiatrists but male psychiatrists felt more empathy for suicidal individuals. Only 37% of the psychiatrists correctly agreed that talking about suicide-related issues with an individual would not precipitate suicidal behavior and only 41% correctly agreed that those who state that they intend to kill themselves may actually do so.Conclusions:Many psychiatrists in Shanghai harbor negative attitudes about suicidal individuals and are concerned that directly addressing the issue with patients will increase the risk of suicide. Demographic factors, educational status and work experience are associated with psychiatrists' attitudes about suicide and, thus, need to be considered when training psychiatrists about suicide prevention. © 2014 Jiao et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Chen X.-J.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Chen X.-J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Liu L.-L.,CAS Institute of Psychology | And 5 more authors.
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2015

Prospective memory (PM) refers to remembering to perform a planned action at a future time. Implementation intention is an encoding method in the form of "if situation Y is encountered, then I will initiate the goal-directed behavior X". It has been applied to improve PM performances. The present study conducted a systematic and meta-analytic review on the effect and mechanism of implementation intention on PM. In the meta-analysis, 36 comparisons were included. The results showed that for healthy young adults, the overall effect of implementation intention in improving PM performances was significant with a medium effect size (d=0.445). The combined verbal and imagery form of implementation intention had a relatively larger effect size (d=0.590). For older adults, implementation intention had a medium to large effect size on their PM performances (d=0.680). As for the mechanism, implementation intention seemed to reduce ongoing task performances in young adults as reflected by longer reaction time (d=0.224) though the effect size was small. The present study supports the positive effect of implementation intention on PM. The mechanism and potential implications of this promising strategy especially for clinical/sub-clinical people are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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