Time filter

Source Type

Liang R.,China Agricultural University | Liang R.,Beijing Huadu Broiler Corporation | Tian J.,China Agricultural University | She R.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013

A high-throughput chicken slaughtering facility in Beijing was systematically investigated for numbers of airborne microorganisms. Samples were assessed for counts of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. During a 4-month period (September to December 2011), samples were collected for 10 min three times daily (preproduction, production, and postproduction). Samples were collected for three consecutive days of each month with an FA-1 sampler from six sampling sites: receiving-hanging, soaking-scalding and defeathering, evisceration, precooling, subdividing, and packing. Humidity, temperature, wind velocity, and airborne particulates also were recorded at each sampling site and time. The highest counts of microorganisms were recorded in the initial stages of processing, i.e., the receiving-hanging and defeathering areas, with a definite decline toward the evisceration, prechilling, subdividing, and packing areas; the prechilling area had the lowest microbial counts of 2.4 × 103 CFU/m3. Mean total coliforms counts ranged from 8.4 × 10 3 to 140 CFU/m3. Maximum E. coli counts were 6.1 × 103 CFU/m3 in the soakingscalding and defeathering area. B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus represented only a small proportion of the microbial population (1,900 to 20 CFU/m3). L. monocytogenes and Salmonella were rarely detected in evisceration, precooling, subdividing, and packing areas. Our study identified the levels of bioaerosols that may affect chicken product quality. This finding could be useful for improved control of microbial contamination to ensure product quality. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection. Source

Li X.,China Agricultural University | Zhang S.,China Agricultural University | Wang H.,Beijing Huadu Broiler Corporation | Zhao J.,China Agricultural University | Zhang G.,China Agricultural University
Virus Genes | Year: 2011

The complete genome sequences were determined for avian paramyxovirus type 2 (APMV-2) strains F8 and NK isolated from chickens in China. Both strains had a genome of 14,904 nucleotides (nt) in length, which followed the "rule of six". Each genome consisted of six genes in the order 3′-N-P-M-F-HN- L-5′, with a 55-nt leader at the 3′ end and a 154-nt trailer at the 5′ end. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that APMV-2 strains F8 and NK shared the highest sequence identity with APMV-2 prototype strain Yucaipa, being classified in the same subgroup as strains Yucaipa, England and Kenya, while strain Bangor represented another subgroup of APMV-2. Among the APMVs, APMV-2 strains F8 and NK exhibited a closer evolutionary relationship with APMV-7 and APMV-8 representative strains. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Tian J.,China Agricultural University | Xia K.,China Agricultural University | Xia K.,Beijing Huadu Broiler Corporation | She R.,China Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2012

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most important human pathogens. Its existence in food animals could present a significant threat to public health. The objective of this study was to determine if HBV is present in serum and liver of chickens. A total of 129 serum samples from broiler chickens were collected for the detection of HBV antigens and antibodies, and 193 liver samples were tested for HBV DNA sequence by PCR and for the existence of HBV antigens by immunohistochemistry. The overall prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc was 28.68%, 53.49%, 17.05%, respectively, whereas HBeAg, anti-HBe were barely detectable. Three serum samples were found to be positive for both HBsAg and HBeAg. Further analysis of these samples with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed two morphologic particles with 20 nm and 40 nm in diameter, which were similar to small spherical and Danes particles of HBV. The viral DNA sequence identified in two of the chicken livers shared 92.2% of one known HBV strain and 97.9% nucleotide sequence of another HBV strain. Our results showed the existence of HBV in chickens. This would present a significant risk to people who work with live chickens or chicken products if HBV found in chicken could be confirmed to be the same as human HBV. © 2011 Tian et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Discover hidden collaborations