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A Pump-free lithium ion liquid flow battery, battery reactor and preparation method of electrode suspension solution. The Pump-free lithium ion liquid flow battery includes a positive electrode liquid preparation tank (

Chen Y.C.,CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering | Zhang X.F.,CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering | Ren Y.K.,CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering | Han L.,CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Intermetallics | Year: 2013

The evolution of the periodic-layered structure formed in the Zn/Ni 3Si system at 663 K has been investigated to clarify the controversies of the formation mechanism. It was discovered that, the periodic-layered structure at the early stage is actually the assembly of the single-phase layer of γ-Ni2Zn11 and the two-phase layer of (γ-Ni2Zn11 + τ3-Ni 2SiZn3) alternated within the reaction zone, which observation proves the prediction of the diffusion-induced stresses model. More complicatedly, during the reactive diffusion process the two-phase layers of (γ-Ni2Zn11 + τ3-Ni 2SiZn3) will be transformed into the single-phase layers of Ni4Si3Zn12 and simultaneously the γ-Ni2Zn11 layers be changed to the δ-Ni 3Zn22 layers. Furthermore, the Ni4Si 3Zn12 layers are dissolved gradually by the neighboring δ-Ni3Zn22 layers, and finally only the thicker layers of phase δ-Ni3Zn22 exist within the reaction zone near to the Zn substrate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Chen Y.C.,CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering | Zhang X.F.,CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering | Li Y.J.,CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering | Ren Y.K.,CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Materials Letters | Year: 2012

A new morphology named as feathery structure was firstly discovered in the reaction zone of system Zn/CuTi 2 annealed at 663 K for various times. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), it was clarified that the rachis of the feathery structure contains the aggregated phases of TiZn 3 and CuZn 2, while the barb is really the periodic-layered structure of the two phases. The formation mechanism was ascribed to the serrated co-growth of the periodic-layered structure and the aggregate structure at the reaction front corresponding to the different crystal orientations of substrate CuTi 2. Very importantly, the discovery of the feathery structure provided a clear and comprehensive pattern for understanding the morphology evolution of the ternary systems from the simple-layered structure to the complicated feathery structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Gong Y.,CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering | Gong Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Gong Y.,Beijing HAWAGA Power Storage Technology Co. | Chen Y.,CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering | And 5 more authors.
Jinshu Xuebao/Acta Metallurgica Sinica | Year: 2016

Periodic-layered structure during solid state reactions is one of the most complicated and interesting structures in the solids, which consists of a periodic sequence of layers that grow perpendicularly to the expected macroscopic diffusion flow. Since the Zn/Fe3Si system was first discovered, much research work has been done on the characterization of the microstructures, the understanding of the formation mechanism and discovery of new systems. However, the exact nature of this phenomenon still remains a controversial topic. In the spirit of thermodynamic instability mechanism, the periodic-layered structure consists of single phase a layer and single phase β layer arrange alternately, while in that of dynamic instability mechanism, which is based on a diffusion-induced stress model, the structure is considered to be composed of regular multilayers of single phase a and two-phase α+β. In the present work, the solid state reactions of various Zn/CuxTiy diffusion systems annealed at 663 K for different times were investigated by using melting contact method, SEM and EDS. The results show that both the polished sections and the in situ fracture surfaces of periodic-layered structure, 5 new systems, i.e. Zn/Cu9Ti, Zn/Cu4Ti, Zn/Cu7Ti3, Zn/Cu3Ti2, Zn/Cu4Ti3 are found to form periodic-layered structure within the diffusion zones. The periodiclayered structure is composed of the CuZn2 single phase and CuZn2+TiZn3 two-phase layers distributing alternately within the reaction area near the CuxTiy side. Furthermore, the thickness of the periodic layers relates to the composition of CuxTiy substrates: the higher the content of Cu atom in the Cu-Ti substrate, the thinner the layer will be. In addition, the adjacent two-phase layers show mated topography and the interface between the periodic layers illustrates typical tear characteristics in mechanics, which are in good accordance with the prediction of the diffusioninduced stresses model. Therefore, the present work provides new and convincing evidence for the dynamic instability mechanism in the interpretation of periodic-layered structures in solids. © All right reserved. Source

Li Y.-J.,CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering | Li Y.-J.,Beijing HAWAGA Power Storage Technology Co. | Chen Y.-C.,CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering | Zhang X.-F.,CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering | And 6 more authors.
Zhongguo Youse Jinshu Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals | Year: 2013

Based on the empirical electron theory (EET) of solids and molecules, the relationship between the interface coefficient and the broken bonds during the atomic dissolution of the same kind of atoms was discussed: the larger the energies required to break bonds are, the smaller the interface coefficients are. Then, the bond breaking energies of Cu and Ti atoms at the low index crystal planes of CuTi2, e.g., (101), (100), (001), (110) and (013) were calculated. The calculated results indicate that the bond breaking energies change with the crystal orientations, and the order of the interface coefficients of Cu and Ti atoms from large to small is determined as follows: (101), (100), (001), (110), (013), which is valuable to analyze the morphology evolution in the CuTi2/Zn solid-state reaction system or other systems using CuTi2 substrate. Source

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