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Lu W.,Tianjin University | Zhang L.,Tianjin University | Bai F.,Beijing General Municipal Engineering Design and Research Institute Co.
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management

Purpose - The learning ability on critical bargaining information contributes to accelerating construction claim negotiations in the win-win situation. The purpose of this paper is to study how to apply Zeuthen strategy and Bayesian learning to simulate the dynamic bargaining process of claim negotiations with the consideration of discount factor and risk attitude. Design/methodology/approach - The authors first adopted certainty equivalent method and curve fitting to build a party's own curve utility function. Taking the opponent's bottom line as the learning goal, the authors introduced Bayesian learning to refine former predicted linear utility function of the opponent according to every new counteroffer. Both parties' utility functions were revised by taking discount factors into consideration. Accordingly, the authors developed a bilateral learning model in construction claim negotiations based on Zeuthen strategy. Findings - The consistency of Zeuthen strategy and the Nash bargaining solution model guarantees the effectiveness of the bilateral learning model. Moreover, the illustrative example verifies the feasibility of this model. Research limitations/implications - As the authors developed the bilateral learning model by mathematical deduction, scholars are expected to collect empirical cases and compare actual solutions and model solutions in order to modify the model in future studies. Practical implications - Negotiators could refer to this model to make offers dynamically, which is favorable for the parties to reach an agreement quickly and to avoid the escalation of claims into disputes. Originality/value - The proposed model provides a supplement to the existing studies on dynamic construction claim negotiations. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Li Y.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Li Y.,Beijing General Municipal Engineering Design and Research Institute Co. | Wang L.-J.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Luan G.-R.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Zhang G.-Z.,Beijing Jiaotong University
Tiedao Xuebao/Journal of the China Railway Society

Experimental study was carried out on engineering characteristics of the thick soft-soil composite foundation under large-area preloading in the throat area of the Jinan West Railway Station of the Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway. The changing law of excess pore water pressures, settlement deformations and pile-soil stresses at different positions and depths with time and soil filling heights was analyzed, thus providing theoretical basis for design and construction of engineering projects of a kind in the same area. The research results show as follows: (1) Excess pore water pressures of the composite foundation in the station throat area increase with growth of loads and upon reaching their peak value gradually scatter and disappear as time prolongs. The change of excess pore water pressures lags behind the change of loads slightly. The maximum excess pore water pressure appears in the upper part of under layer. In the underlayer, excess pore water pressures decrease gradually with increasing of depths. (2) For the composite foundation of the station throat area, the settlement reaches the maximum in the middle of the area reinforced with Pile 25 m CFG. Pipe Pile 35 m PHC effectively decreases the settement in the centre area of the station. Major compression settling happens at the bottom of the reinforced area and in the underlayer. (3) For the composite foundation of the station throat area, pile stresses, inter-pile soil stresses and pile-soil stress ratios demonstrate a generally decreasing trend from the centre of embankment outwards to edges. In embankment filling and preloading inter-pile soil stresses are passed on to piles in a gradually decreasing manner while pile-top stresses increase gradually until tending to get stablized. ©, 2014, Science Press. All right reserved. Source

Na Y.,Beijing General Municipal Engineering Design and Research Institute Co.
Applied Mechanics and Materials

Highway tunnel mechanical and electrical engineering is a complex system which involves machinery, electronics, automation, communication and etc. In order to achieve high quality mechanical and electrical engineering standards, the construction and detection process should be planed and managed in details. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

Zeng T.,University of South China | Li D.,Beijing University of Technology | Jiang X.,University of South China | Qiu W.-X.,Beijing General Municipal Engineering Design and Research Institute Co. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Water Process Engineering

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) process is considered to be a sustainable option for nitrogen removal. Application of this process, however, is limited by the availability of high strength nitrogen. In this study, an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) biofilter to treat sewage was deployed at ambient temperatures (18-21.5 °C), and the corresponding microbial community was investigated. The ammonia and nitrite initial loading rates were 0.154 kgN/(m3 d) and 0.2 kgN/(m3 d), respectively. ANAMMOX bacteria were rapidly enriched within 25 days and achieved a sustainable increase in the nitrogen removal rate (NRR) for sewage treatment. A final NRR of 0.99 kg N/(m3 d) was seen at the 80 day point. Observations that combined fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations confirmed that ANAMMOX bacteria were dominant in the cultivated biofilm, accounting for 39.5 (±1.6)% of total bacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis identified five genera of bacteria: Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Nitrosomonas, Candidatus Brocadia fulgida and Ferruginibacter. Of these, Candidatus Brocadia fulgida was the functional ANAMMOX bacteria in the reactor. Candidatus Brocadia fulgida could survive comfortably in sewage, and co-existed with Nitrosomonas and denitrifying bacteria. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

An L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Ling X.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Wang M.,Beijing General Municipal Engineering Design and Research Institute Co. | Li Q.,Harbin Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering

A series of dynamic triaxial tests were carried out to investigate the variation laws of the dynamic parameters of typical silt soil in seasonal frozen region obtained from the embankment along the Harbin-Daqing railway subjected to train loading. Effects on the dynamic elastic modulus and damping ratio of the repeat freeze-thaw cycles, moisture content, loading frequency, and confining pressure were studied. The relationship between the modulus ratio and dynamic strain under various factors was proposed. The results show that the repeat freeze-thaw cycles have a significant effect on the backbone curve of silt soil in seasonal frozen region. The dynamic stress tends to decrease with the increase of the number of repeat freeze-thaw cycles for a certain dynamic strain. The maximum dynamic elastic modulus increases with the increasing confining pressure or the decreasing moisture content. The damping ratio increases with the number of repeat freeze-thaw cycles increases and it increases considerably after five freeze-thaw cycles. In addition, the damping ratio is strongly influenced by the loading frequency and it increases dramatically under 4Hz in comparison with that under 2Hz. Under the condition of the same dynamic strain, the damping ratio increases with the moisture content increases. © 2015 ejge. Source

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