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Huang J.,China Agricultural University | Wang S.,China Agricultural University | Zhang L.,China Agricultural University | Wu J.,China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The inactivation of bacteria naturally present in strawberry pulp was investigated after high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment at pressure levels up to 600 MPa at 25 °C for 5 ~ 25 min. Five strains of pressure-resistant bacteria designated as A, B, C, D and E were isolated and identified. The five strains were gram-positive, spore-forming, rods or rod in chains. Growth of the strains was observed at 30 ~ 45 °C, and strain B also grew well at 55 °C. They could produce acid from glucose and were catalase-positive. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the five strains belonged to the genus Bacillus. Strain A and D exhibited the greatest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99% with B. licheniformis and B. firmus, respectively. By combination of phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain C was B. mycoides and E was B. pumilus. On the basis of physiological and biochemical characteristics, gyrB gene sequences analysis and whole-cell fatty acids analysis, strain B was B. amyloliquefaciens. Further studies showed that strain B (B. amyloliquefaciens) exhibited the highest pressure resistance, and it was reduced by 4.62-log after treatment at 600 MPa for 25 min at 25 °C as the most effective observed inactivation. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2012 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Pei F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang W.-J.,Nanjing University of Finance and Economics | Shi Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Sun Y.,Beijing Food Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2014

Freeze-drying (FD) and three different combinations of drying methods: freeze-drying combined with hot air drying (FD + AD), freeze-drying combined with vacuum drying (FD + VD) and freeze-drying combined with microwave vacuum drying (FD + MVD) were used to dry button mushroom slices. A comprehensive analysis of dried products was performed on their colour, texture, nutrient retention, microstructure and energy consumption. The results showed that, under conditions of 38 % moisture content changing point, most of the parameters including L* values, a* values, average density and hardness of FD + VD and FD + MVD samples had no remarkable changes (p > 0.05) compared with FD samples. However, only FD + MVD method can reduce drying time by 35.63 % in comparison of FD method, although all the combination drying methods can reduce the energy consumption. Moreover, FD + VD and FD + MVD products were better than FD + AD products in nutrient retention except that content of vitamin C was comparatively lower during FD + MVD process. In conclusion, the FD + MVD method has advantages in terms of efficiency and energy saving and could be preferred to produce high-quality products. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Sun Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Sun Y.,Beijing Food Research Institute | Shao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,Shandong Polytechnic University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis | Year: 2014

Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris) exhibits many biological activities including antioxidant, inhibition of inflammation, cancer prevention, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties, etc. However, a majority of studies involving C. militaris have focused only on in vitro and animal models, and there is a lack of direct translation and application of study results to clinical practice (e.g., health benefits). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of C. militaris micron powder (3 doses) on the human immune system. The study results showed that administration of C. militaris at various dosages reduced the activity of cytokines such as eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor-2, GRO, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the activity of various cytokines, including GRO, sCD40L, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a significant downregulation of interleukin-12(p70), interferon-γ inducible protein 10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β activities, indicating that C. militaris at all three dosages downregulated the activity of cytokines, especially inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Different dosages of C. militaris produced different changes in cytokines. © 2014, Food and Drug Administration, Taiwan. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.


Sun Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ma Y.,Beijing Food Research Institute | Xu Z.,Beijing Food Research Institute | Yang W.,Nanjing University | And 5 more authors.
Food and Agricultural Immunology | Year: 2014

Pleurotus eryngii, also known as thistle mushroom, is rich in proteins, dietary fibre and polysaccharides. It has been developed as a functional food due to its antioxidant, anti-fatigue, anti-viral and anti-tumour functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the immunoregulatory and antioxidant effects of P. eryngii superfine powder (PESP) in vivo. Test mice were fed with a diet containing 6.67% PESP to explore its effect on mouse delayed-type hypersensitivity, phagocytic index, serum hemolysin, serum and liver glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver homogenate. For the human study, volunteers received PESP at doses of 5, 10 or 15 g. Serum levels of 39 cytokines were determined before and after ingestion using a Millipore Human Kit and a liquid chip scanner. Our results showed that, in mice, dietary P. eryngii supplementation significantly increased the weight difference of ears (P < 0.01), phagocytic index (P < 0.05), serum hemolysin (P < 0.01), serum and liver GSH-PX activities (P < 0.01) and serum SOD activity (P < 0.01), but decreased MDA content (P < 0.01) in liver homogenate. In human trials, 5 g of PESP significantly decreased serum epidermal growth factor, while 15 g of PESP significantly decreased serum granulocyte–macrophage colony stimulating factor, macrophage-derived chemokine and tumour necrosis factor-α. No change was detected in serum cytokines after the administration of 10 g of PESP. P. eryngii can regulate innate and acquired immune functions in mice to execute antioxidant and anti-aging functions, and can alter human serum cytokines. The dual immunoregulatory effects of P. eryngii are consistent with the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. © 2013, © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

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