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Zhang H.,China Agricultural University | Lu P.,Beijing Environmental Sanitation Engineering Research Institute | Li G.,China Agricultural University | Zhang W.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2011

If kitchen waste is composted alone, it will produce a large number of leachate and odor substances which seriously polluted the environment. In this study, two experiments were conducted, one experiment was that kitchen waste was composted alone, another experiment was that cornstalks as an additive according to the wet weight ration of 1:3 were added to the kitchen waste composting. The maturity indices, leachate and the main odors emission were analyzed in two experiments. The results indicated that compared with no additive, better compost product was obtained on the experiment having additive on the basis of temperature, pH value, electrical conductivity, C/N ratio and germination index, and cornstalks as additive could effectively dilution the salinity during kitchen waste composting. Furthermore, although the mean concentration of ammonia increased by 3.3% when cornstalks were added to kitchen waste composting, the mean concentration of dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan decreased by 62.3%, 67.9% and 49.6%, respectively. There were 32.6% leachate generated during the kitchen waste composting, and adding cornstalks avoided the leachate generate. Therefore, cornstalks as an additive has a significant role in improving the maturity and controlling the leachate and odor emissions during kitchen waste composting.

Ren L.-M.,China Agricultural University | Li G.-X.,China Agricultural University | Shen Y.-J.,China Agricultural University | Schuchardt F.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | Lu Peng,Beijing Environmental Sanitation Engineering Research Institute
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2010

Aimed at controlling the nitrogen loss during composting, the mixture of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and phosphoric acid (H 3PO4) (molar ratio 1:2) were utilized as additives to avoid increasing total salinity. In trial TA, the additives were put into absorption bottles connecting with a gas outlet of fermentor (ex situ method); in trial TB, the additives were directly added to the composting materials (in situ method). During the 26 day composting period, the temperature, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 +-N), total phosphorus (TP), available phosphorus (AP) and germination index (GI) were measured. The experimental results show that the additives reduced the pH, while NH4 +-N and TN were obviously improved. NH4 +-N was 11.9 g kg-1 and 3 g kg-1 in amended compost trial (TB) and unamended compost trial (TA), respectively; TN increased from 26.5 g kg-1 to 40.3 g kg -1 in TB and increased from 26.5 g kg-1 to 26.8 g kg -1 in TA. Analysis of the TOC and carbon mass revealed that absorbents accelerated the degradation of organic matter. The germination index test showed the maturity of TB (102%) was better than TA (82%) in final compost. Furthermore, TP and AP were also obviously improved. X-ray diffraction analysis of precipitation showed that the precipitation in absorption bottle of TA was newberyite (MgHPO4 3H2O), however, the crystal in the TB compost was struvite (MgNH4PO4 6H2O: magnesium ammonium phosphate). These results indicated that Mg(OH)2 and H 3PO4 could reduce the ammonia emission by struvite crystallization reaction. Optimal conditions for struvite precipitation should be determined for different systems. © The Author(s), 2010.

Zhang H.,China Agricultural University | Li G.,China Agricultural University | Wang G.,Beijing Environmental Sanitation Engineering Research Institute
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2010

In order to explore the distribution of kitchen waste and calorific capacity among different sized municipal solid waste, and determine the treatment patterns based on the size distribution, the mixed sample municipal solid waste from two transfer stations for southern urban area of Beijing was divided into nine groups according to different sizes: < 10, 10-< 20, 20-< 30, 30-< 40, 40-< 50, 50-< 60, 60-< 70, 70-80 and > 80 mm, their physical compositions were classified, and the relationship between physical composition, moisture content and calorific value were analyzed. The screening process, treatment technologies and final processing mode, which suitable for different size of properties, were determined based on fuzzy clustering analysis, and the difference of final destination of material compared was analyzed with the original screening process. The results indicated that moisture and kitchen waste content were significantly negatively correlated with calorific value, the plastic and paper content showed a significant positive correlation with caloric value. The best screening process was taken at the 40mm and 80mm screening. The municipal solid waste under 40mm sieved can be taken as the composting materials. The materials for 40-80 mm can be incinerated with 80 mm sieved material after increasing calorific value through bio-drying pretreatment. The incineration and compost can residue for landfill. Further destination of material of this model showed that there were 579 t/d municipal solid waste by composting, 441.9 t/d by bio-drying pretreatment, 1148.2 t/d by incineration, and 390.8 t/d for landfill. Under this treatment pattern, the resources treatment rate of municipal solid waste improved by more than 50%, compost production increased by 68.6%, and landfill capacity reduced by about 74.9% for southern urban area of Beijing. This research can provide a theoretical evidence for the selection of screening technique and treatment pattern of municipal solid waste in the future, and the idea and method can also be a reference for other regions.

Shi D.,Jilin Agricultural University | Zhang Z.,China Green Food Development Center | Li G.,China Agricultural University | Zhang H.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2010

Based on 0-15 mm screened municipal solid waste from Beijing Majialou Municipal Solid Waste Transfer Station, the research using closed static technology was conducted in the tunnels of Nan Gong Composting Factory to understand the feasibility of small size municipal solid waste composting and select the optimum heap high of composting. Four treatments were arranged, which had different heap heights namely 2.5, 2.0, 1.5 and 1.0 m, respectively. Samples taken from each treatment after eight day of high temperature composting were analyzed with the maturity indexes including electric conductivity (EC), E4/E6, water soluable carbon (WSC), NH4 +-N, C/N, germination index (GI), value of fecal coliform, which was combined with a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to evaluate the maturity. The results showed that 0-15 mm municipal solid waste could be composted individually, and the optimum maturity heap heights were 1.5 m and 1.0 m. But the optimum heap height of tunnel composting was 1.5 m when there was more integration.

PubMed | Beijing Environmental Sanitation Engineering Research Institute, China Academy of Building Research and China Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: Waste management (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2016

This study investigates the influence of aeration on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and ammonia (NH

Cao Z.,Tsinghua University | Xu F.,University of Antwerp | Covaci A.,University of Antwerp | Wu M.,Tsinghua University | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Dust samples were collected in Beijing, China, from four different indoor microenvironments (office, hotel, kindergarten, and student dormitory) and one outdoor (road dust) microenvironment. These five composite samples were fractionated into 13 sequential size fractions and an individual fraction of <50 μm for further analysis. In the fractions of <50 μm, nine phosphorus flame retardants (σPFRs), four novel brominated flame retardants (σNBFRs), and two Dechlorane Plus isomers (DPs) showed the highest concentrations in hotel dust (124 000 ng g-1), dormitory dust (14 200 ng g-1), and kindergarten dust (231 ng g-1), respectively. Nevertheless, nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (σPBDEs) were the dominant flame retardants (FRs) (96% of total FRs) in road dust, with the maximum concentration of 23 700 ng g-1, higher than in any indoor dust. The FR contamination varied strongly among different types of microenvironments, leading to high human exposure to various FRs. Concentrations of FRs did not increase constantly with a particle size decrease. Fractions with a particle size around 900, 100, and 10 μm could represent peak values, while valley values were commonly detected around fractions with a particle size around 40 μm. Large differences were found between indoor dust and road dust. In road dust, FRs were mainly enriched in fractions of <50 μm. The organic content of dust, FR application, and consequent abrasion processes of FR-containing materials might be the determinants of the FR concentrations. Volatilization and abrasion were considered to be important migration pathways for FRs. DPs and BDE-209 were sought to be mainly applied in abrasion-proof materials, while most phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) were probably added in a large proportion in materials easy to wear. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Zhang H.Y.,China Academy of Building Research | Gu J.,China Academy of Building Research | Wang G.Q.,Beijing Environmental Sanitation Engineering Research Institute | Hao L.W.,China Academy of Building Research | Wu X.Q.,China Academy of Building Research
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

The process of biodrying could be a good solution for municipal solid waste management, allowing the production of fuel with an interesting energy content. In this study, bio-drying the mixed municipal solid waste (with the size among 15-80 mm) with different aeration modes were conducted. During the experiment, temperature, oxygen content and moisture content were determined, and continuous measurements of H2S and CH4 were taken. The results indicated that the thermophilic phases of all treatments beside T1 were met the Chinese standard of >55°C for 5-7 days for sanitation. The aeration mode of T4 was in favor of reduced the H2S and CH4 emission during MSW bio-drying. Under the condition of this study, the bio-drying cycle should be determined for 18 days. Intermittent ventilation mode is more effective to reduce the moisture content in MSW bio-drying process. So the aeration mode of T4 (2.0L/min, 30min run/30 min stop) was the first choice during MSW bio-drying. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Hu Z.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Zheng Y.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Yan F.,Beijing Environmental Sanitation Engineering Research Institute | Xiao B.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Liu S.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Energy | Year: 2013

Pyrolysis experiments of blue-green algae blooms (BGAB) were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on pyrolysis product yields and bio-oil properties. The pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges of 300-700 °C, below 0.25-2.5 mm and 50-400 mL min-1, respectively. The maximum oil yield of 54.97% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C, particle size below 0.25 mm and sweep gas flow rate of 100 mL min-1. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the oil were determined, and the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) technique. The analysis of bio-oil composition showed that bio-oil from BGAB could be a potential source of renewable fuel with a heating value of 31.9 MJ kg-1. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Yuan H.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Li R.,Beijing Environmental Sanitation Engineering Research Institute | Zhang Y.,China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation | Li X.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | And 4 more authors.
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2015

The effect of ammonia pretreatment on the anaerobic digestibility of corn stover was investigated. Corn stover with different moisture contents (30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%) was pretreated with three concentrations of ammonia (2%, 4%, and 6%) at 35±2°C for the following batch digestion. Results showed that the reagent of 4% ammonia and 70% moisture content could achieve the highest anaerobic digestibility. In comparison with the untreated, the time needed to produce 90% of the maximum digester gas production (T90) shortened from 52d to 37d. The total biogas production and the unit volatile solids (VS) biogas yield were 20,740ml and 427.1ml respectively, both 26.70% higher than the untreated. It was found that the digesters with high moisture contents of 70% and 90% were more stable and had shorter acidification periods relative to the low moisture contents of 30% and 50%. The decreases in cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin indicated that ammonia pretreatment could destroy the lignocellulose (LCH) structure and furthermore enhance the biogas production. Following anaerobic digestion, 80.6% of cellulose and 68.52% of hemicelluloses were consumed where there was 4% ammonia and 70% moisture content, indicating why these conditions produced the highest level of biogas. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IAgrE.

Ma J.Y.,Beijing Environmental Sanitation Engineering Research Institute | Chen X.Y.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Su W.,University of Science and Technology Beijing
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Garbage incineration is an effective minimization and resource processing methods, but there are no comparative analysises about the environmental impact of incineration processes. To investigate the environmental impacts of three typical MSW incineration processes, we modeled scenarios, calculated energy consumed and six aspects which classified as GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP and DUST. The classification results showed the value of the environment impact potential respectively. The impact potential of heat recover-dry absorption processes according to normalized results in descending order is GWP>EP>DUST>AP>POCP>ODP, in contrast the rank of heat recover-wet absorption and semidry processes is GWP>EP>AP>DUST>POCP>ODP, global warming impacts is the most significant penitential factor. The rank of impact potential according to weight factor in descending order is GWP>EP>DUST>AP>ODP>POCP. Dust potential became more significant. The weight factor of Dust is almost twice as much as that of AP. This is because there is a large gap between baseline level and the target level, the solid-waste are the focus of control in these years. In environmental terms, the environmental depletion index of heat recover-dry absorption process is lowest with minimal environmental impact and the heat recover-wet absorption process is the highest with largest environmental impact. The incineration with dry absorption program is the best environment-friendly process in term of environmental impact. Utilization of waste water and reducing total amount of water entering the system can effectively reduce the environmental implication for both HW and HS processes. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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