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Sun X.-P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Sun X.-P.,China Agricultural University | Lu P.,Beijing Environmental Sanitation Design Science Research Institute | Jiang T.,Leshan Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B | Year: 2014

Mismanagement of the composting process can result in emissions of CH 4, N2O, and NH3, which have caused severe environmental problems. This study was aimed at determining whether CH 4, N2O, and NH3 emissions from composting are affected by bulking agents during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system. Three bulking agents, corn stalks, spent mushroom compost, and sawdust, were used in composting with pig manure in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for more than a month. Gas emissions were measured continuously, and detailed gas emission patterns were obtained. Concentrations of NH3 and N2O from the composting pig manure mixed with corn stalks or sawdust were higher than those from the spent mushroom compost treatment, especially the sawdust treatment, which had the highest total nitrogen loss among the three runs. Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3, which accounts for 11.16% to 35.69% of the initial nitrogen. One-way analysis of variance for NH3 emission showed no significant differences between the corn stalk and sawdust treatments, but a significant difference was noted between the spent mushroom compost and sawdust treatments. The introduction of sawdust reduced CH4 emission more than the corn stalks and spent mushroom compost. However, there were no significant differences among the three runs for total carbon loss. All treatments were matured after 30 d. © 2014 Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag. Source

Zhang Y.,Tsinghua University | Yue D.,Tsinghua University | Liu J.,Tsinghua University | Lu P.,Beijing Environmental Sanitation Design Science Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2012

Characteristics of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emissions during the anaerobic decomposition of untreated (APD-0) and four aerobically pretreated (APD-20, APD-39, APD-49, and APD-63) samples of municipal solid waste (MSW) were investigated in laboratory. The cumulative mass of the NMOCs of APD-20, APD-39, APD-49, and APD-63 accounted for 15%, 9%, 16%, and 15% of that of APD-0, respectively. The intensities of the NMOC emissions calculated by dividing the cumulative NMOC emissions by the quantities of organic matter removed (QVS) decreased from 4.1 mg/kg QVS for APD-0 to 0.8-3.4 mg/kg QVS for aerobically pretreated MSW. The lipid and starch contents might have significant impact on the intensity of the NMOC emissions. Alkanes dominated the NMOCs released from the aerobically pretreated MSW, while oxygenated compounds were the chief component of the NMOCs generated from untreated MSW. Aerobic pretreatment of MSW prior to landfilling reduces the organic content of the waste and the intensity of the NMOC emissions, and increases the odor threshold, thereby reducing the environmental impact of landfills. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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