Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG

Beijing, China

Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG

Beijing, China
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Zhang L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Zhang S.,Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG | Gan Y.,Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG | Peng Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Peng Y.,Beijing University of Technology
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

The feasibility of bio-augmentation processes in promoting start-up of partial nitrification of sewage was investigated in this study. Initially, partial nitrification was well-established in an anoxic/oxic reactor treating high-strength ammonia wastewater. Then the influent was replaced by real sewage instantly or gradually. In both cases, nitrite pathway could be maintained for 5-7. d. However, it was eventually destroyed due to the inevitable over-aeration. In another strategy, sewage was treated in the adsorption/biodegradation reactor. The nitrite pathway was obviously promoted by addition of the previous activated sludge from high ammonia wastewater treatment. Nitrite accumulation efficiency of sewage was quickly increased from 26% to 86% and maintained at a high level for 2. months. Moreover, the effluent has a favorable ratio of NH4+/NO2- for feeding anammox process. The experimental results indicated that appropriate bio-augmentation strategies could significantly improve the build-up partial nitrification of sewage in the pretreatment of anammox. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Zhang S.,Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG | Wang S.,Beijing University of Technology | Wu C.,Beijing University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from primary sludge and the subsequent application to improve biological nutrient removal has drawn much attention. In this study, a novel approach of using primary sludge as an additional carbon source was conducted in batch tests. The nitritation effluent was directly injected into the sludge fermentation reactor to achieve nitrogen removal. Complete denitrification could be realized in the combined reactor. Moreover, injecting nitrite not only promoted the sludge stabilization process, but also reduced the release of phosphate and ammonium during sludge stabilization. The novel process was further evaluated in a continuous system by treating sludge dewatering liquors. Under optimum conditions, 85% removal of ammonium and 75% of total nitrogen could be obtained using primary sludge, resulting in the suitable effluent for recycling into the inlet of the wastewater treatment plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Peng Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Peng Y.,Beijing University of Technology | Zhang L.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Zhang S.,Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

In this study, a novel denitrification reactor is used to treat sludge dewatering liquor, where the co-occurrence of sludge fermentation and nitrate reduction was obtained. The system showed an efficient and stable nitrogen removal performance. When the effluent recycle ratio was 200%, TN and NH4+ removal efficiency was 99.6% and 83.5%, respectively. In addition, primary sludge could be well degraded in the novel system. Over 50% volatile suspended solid (VSS) of primary sludge was utilized, and the ratio of VSS/SS declined from 0.76 to 0.39. Further investigation with batch experiments revealed that, compared to conventional sludge fermentation, the integration of denitrification and fermentation was better at carbon production as well as the control of ammonium release. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Science and Technology Beijing, Harbin Institute of Technology and Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research | Year: 2016

The partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) process has been applied to ammonium-rich wastewater treatment, but the operational boundary has not been well determined for long-term stability. This pilot-scale study was targeted at a single-stage PN/A process using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) (volume: 53 m(3)) and granulated activated sludge. The maximum nitrogen removal rate reached 0.83 kg N/(m(3)d). Microbial analysis suggested that ammonium oxidizing bacteria were mainly present in small sludge flocs while anammox bacteria were prone to grow in large sludge granules. The PN/A performance was enhanced when dissolved oxygen (DO) was increased from 0.25 to 0.76 mg/L, and deteriorated at DO higher than 1.15 mg/L. The PN/A was inhibited at free ammonia (FA) over 77.0 mg/L. High DO or FA concentrations inhibited anammox activity and further induced high and inhibitory nitrite concentrations. Therefore, appropriate DO and FA concentrations should be controlled to achieve single-stage PN/A in SBRs.


PubMed | Harbin Institute of Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University and Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2015

A pilot-scale activated sludge bioreactor was filled with immobile carrier to treat high ammonium wastewater. Autotrophic nitrogen elimination occurred rapidly by inoculating nitrifying activated sludge and anammox biofilm. As the ammonium loading rate increased, nitrogen removal rate of 1.2kgNm(-3)d(-1) was obtained with the removal efficiency of 80%. Activated sludge diameter distribution profiles presented two peak values, indicating simultaneous existence of flocculent and granular sludge. Red granular sludge was observed in the reactor. Furthermore, the results of morphological and molecular analysis showed that the characteristics of granular sludge were similar to that of biofilm, while much different from the flocculent sludge. It was assumed granular sludge was formed through the continuous growth and detachment of anammox biofilm. The mechanism of granular sludge formation was discussed and the procedure model was proposed. According to the experimental results, the integrated fixed-biofilm activated sludge reactor provided an alternative to nitrogen removal based on anammox.


Zheng B.,Recovery Water | Zhang L.,Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG | Guo J.,Recovery Water | Zhang S.,Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2016

The abundance and diversity of anammox bacteria was investigated in two pilot-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactors treating high ammonium wastewater. Reactor A was inoculated with nitrifying sludge, while Reactor B was inoculated with suspended anammox sludge with the dominant anammox bacteria of Candidatus 'Kuenenia'. After 180 days' operation, the predominate anammox bacteria was Candidatus 'Brocadia' (65%) in the biofilm, while Candidatus 'Kuenenia' (86%) outcompeted with other anammox bacteria in suspended sludge in Reactor A. Candidatus 'Kuenenia' were dominated in suspended sludge through the entire experiment in Reactor B. In contrast, the predominated species shifted from Candidatus 'Kuenenia' (89%) into Candidatus 'Brocadia' (66%) in the biofilm of Reactor B. This study indicated that Candidatus 'Brocadia' preferred to grow in the biofilm, while Candidatus 'Kuenenia' would dominant over other anammox bacteria in the suspended sludge. Further studies are required to identify the internal factors affecting the distribution of anammox bacteria. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang W.,Urban Water Engineering | Che W.,Urban Water Engineering | Liu D.K.,Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG | Gan Y.P.,Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG | Lv F.F.,Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2012

In order to investigate the characterization of runoff in storm sewer from various urban catchments, three monitoring systems at different spatial scales have been installed separately. They have been held since July 2010 in urban area of Beijing (China). The monitoring data revealed that chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and NH 3-N values significantly exceed the Class V surface water quality standard developed by Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China (MEP). A surface solids buildup and wash off model for small watershed was adopted to analyze and discuss the process of a runoff pollutant discharge. More than a half of pollutant parameters presented a good fit to the model. However, a slightly worse-fit to the wash off model appeared in less than half of the data. Due to the influence of sewer sediments, sewer system characteristics, catchment characteristics, and other reasons, first flush was seldom observed in storm sewer runoff from these three survey areas. Meanwhile, the correlation between TSS and any other pollutant was analyzed according to cumulative load of pollutants in runoff events. An event mean concentrations (EMCs) approach was adopted to quantify the pollution of runoff. EMCs of various pollutants in storm sewer runoff between different rainfall events were slightly higher than the typical values observed in similar areas at home and abroad, according to other studies reported in literature. Based on quantitative analysis, it can be concluded that urban nonpoint source pollution is recognized as the major causes of quality deterioration in the receiving water bodies. This is after the point source pollution has been controlled substantially in Beijing. An integrated strategy, which combines centralized and decentralized control, along with the conditions of meteorology, hydrology, urban planning, existing drainage system, etc., will be an effective and economic approach to urban runoff pollution control. © IWA Publishing 2012.


Hao X.,Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture | Cai Z.,Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture | Gan Y.,Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2011

Energy production from excess sludge derived from anaerobic digestion in biological wastewater treatment has been once again emphasized after the Copenhagen summit conference on global climate change. Disruption and/or hydrolysis of bacterial cells is a bottleneck limiting the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, but suitable pretreatment for excess sludge could enhance disruption and/or hydrolysis of bacterial cells and thus greatly enhance the potential green energy available from excess sludge. Today, there are many pretreatment technologies for excess sludge available. Many pretreatment technologies, such as ultrasonic and focused pulsed methods, have already been applied in engineering practice. Moreover, some technologies, such as thermal hydrolysis and alkaline pretreatment, and biological agents added to excess sludge are in research and development. In this article, pretreatment technologies are categorized as physical/mechanical, chemical, biological and combined pretreatment methods, and each method is described in detail including their theories, characteristics, R&D progress and prospects for application.


Zhang L.,Recovery Water | Zhang L.,Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG | Zhang S.,Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG | Peng Y.,Recovery Water | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

Nitritation-anammox process was successfully established in pilot- and full-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactors. An average nitrogen removal efficiency of 80% was achieved under ammonium loading rate of 0.7-1.3kgN/(m3d) in the pilot-scale reactor (12m3). Moreover, molecular analysis showed that ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were more abundant in the activated sludge while anammox bacteria were primarily located in the biofilm. The segregation of AOB and anammox bacteria enhanced the nitrogen removal rate and operational stability. Furthermore, a full-scale IFAS reactor of 500m3 was set-up to treat sludge dewatering liquors. An average nitrogen removal efficiency of 85% and a nitrogen removal rate of 0.48kgN/(m3d) were achieved after inoculation. It was noted that high influent suspended solids would seriously affect the performance of the IFAS system. Therefore, a pre-treatment was proposed to reduce suspended solid in the full-scale application. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Recovery Water and Beijing Drainage Group Co. BDG
Type: | Journal: Bioresource technology | Year: 2015

Nitritation-anammox process was successfully established in pilot- and full-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactors. An average nitrogen removal efficiency of 80% was achieved under ammonium loading rate of 0.7-1.3kgN/(m(3)d) in the pilot-scale reactor (12m(3)). Moreover, molecular analysis showed that ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were more abundant in the activated sludge while anammox bacteria were primarily located in the biofilm. The segregation of AOB and anammox bacteria enhanced the nitrogen removal rate and operational stability. Furthermore, a full-scale IFAS reactor of 500m(3) was set-up to treat sludge dewatering liquors. An average nitrogen removal efficiency of 85% and a nitrogen removal rate of 0.48kgN/(m(3)d) were achieved after inoculation. It was noted that high influent suspended solids would seriously affect the performance of the IFAS system. Therefore, a pre-treatment was proposed to reduce suspended solid in the full-scale application.

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