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Cao Y.,China Agricultural University | Yu L.,Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture | Teng G.,China Agricultural University | Zhao S.,China Agricultural University | Liu X.,Beijing DQY Agricultural Technology Co.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014

Vocalizations of farm animals may accompany particular states of animals' mood or emotion. Based on these vocalizations, we can judge animals' current needs and impaired welfare, so they may be regarded as indicators of animals' state of welfare. However, the noise made by different mechanical systems in the commercial poultry house can interfere with the detection of laying hens' vocalization. The purpose of this study is to analyze and classify vocalizations of laying hens and mechanical noises. The analysis and classification is based on time-domain and frequency-domain characteristics of the signal. Vocalization in the egg laying process and song are two kinds of typical laying hens' vocalizations. Mechanical sources of noise on the farm mainly include the ventilation system, manure-removal systems, egg-collection systems, and feeding systems. The power spectral density and sub-band power ratio of laying hens' vocalizations and mechanical noises were extracted by using a sound analysis system based on the program development environment LabVIEW. A J48 decision tree algorithm was used to classify and identify laying hens' vocalization and mechanical noise on the data-mining platform Weka. The results showed that the frequency ranges of vocalization associated with the egg-laying process and singing were mainly distributed within 400-2 500 Hz, the frequency ranges of ventilation-system noise and feeding system noise were mainly distributed below 1 500 Hz, the frequency ranges of manure-removal system noise and egg-collection system noise were located within 100-3 000 Hz, which was wider than the frequency ranges of other sounds. The max power ratios of vocalization in the egg-laying process and singing were (83.4±9.9)% and (76.7±18.8)%, which were within the frequency range >689-1 378 Hz;. The power ratios of vocalization in the egg laying process and singing were higher than that of mechanical noises in the frequency range >689-1 378 Hz. The maximum power ratios of ventilation-system and feeding-system noise were 68.1±2.1% and 74.5±9.7%, respectively, which were within the frequency range 0-689 Hz. The power ratios of ventilation-system and feeding-system noise were higher than that of others in the frequency range 0-689 Hz. The power ratio of manure-removal system and egg-collection system noise were relatively uniform; the maximum power ratios were just 37.2±4.1% and 40.9±3.4%, respectively, and were within the frequency range >1 378-2 756 Hz. The power ratios of manure-removal system and egg-collection system noise were higher than that of others in the frequency range >1 378-2 756 Hz. The sound recognition model based on sub-band power ratio had an average correct classification rate of 93.4%. Further, 92.5% of vocalizations associated with the egg laying process and 85.9% of songs were correctly identified, and the correct classification ratios of ventilation system, feeding system, manure-removal system, and egg-collection system noise were 97.7%, 96.2%, 97.8%, and 94.4%, which were higher than that of laying hens' vocalizations. This method, based on sub-band power ratios, effectively recognizes and discriminates noise from different sources, which can provide a reference for detecting vocalizations of animals within the complex noise environment on the commercial farm. Source

Wu W.,China Agricultural University | Gao X.-G.,Hebei University of Science and Technology | Dai Y.,Beijing DQY Agricultural Technology Co. | Fu Y.,University of Aarhus | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2015

Exploration of the potential predictors of meat discoloration is a challenging task, especially in Luxi yellow cattle that are highly appreciated breed in China. In the present study, the variations in meat color attributes and sarcoplasmic proteome of M. semitendinosus during post-mortem storage (0, 5, 10 and 15. days) were evaluated and analyzed via integrating proteomics and bioinformatics. The proteomics results revealed that meat discoloration gradually occurred during storage periods, while sarcoplasmic proteome experienced complex changes. Among the differential proteins identified by comparison between day 0 and days 5, 10 and 15, triosephosphate isomerase, l-lactate dehydrogenase A chain isoform, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A isoform, peroxiredoxin-6, and pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2 isoform are highly related to meat color parameters, which may serve as the candidate predictors for monitoring of meat discoloration during post-mortem. Furthermore, Gene Ontology and protein-protein interaction analyses indicated that they are representative proteins of the glycolytic metabolism and the redox process during post-mortem storage, suggesting a potential relationship between post-mortem discoloration and these proteins. The present results provide the theoretic basis of searching novel strategies to maintain the stability of meat color. semitendinosus during post-mortem storage are presented. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dai Y.,China Agricultural University | Dai Y.,Beijing DQY Agricultural Technology Co. | Lu Y.,China Agricultural University | Wu W.,China Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2014

In the present work, changes in lipid and protein oxidation, non-heme iron (NHI) content, color and texture parameters during refrigerated storage (7 days/4 °C) of ohmically (OH) and water bath (WB)-cooked pork meat were studied. A significant effect of refrigerated storage duration and cooking method on color, texture, lipid oxidation and carbonyl content was detected for OH-cooked and WB-cooked meat. The OH-cooked meat had better color appearance, lipid oxidative stability, slightly enhanced hardness and protein oxidation levels during 7 days of storage having lower values of TBARS, center lightness (L∗), center/surface brownness (b∗) and free thiol groups; however, there were higher values of center/surface redness (a∗), non-heme iron, protein carbonyl and hardness compared to those from WB-cooked meat. Industrial relevance The conventional cooking protocols always result in quality deteriorations and reduced shelf-life in meat products due to longer cooking times. In this study, the ohmically-cooked meat showed comparable or improved oxidation levels, color appearance and texture attributes during 7 days of refrigerated storage. From an anti-oxidation perspective, the available data are provided for the application of ohmic cooking in Chinese commercial productions of cooked meat with high quality requirements that could be established. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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