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Chen M.,Beijing Centres for Disease Control and Prevention | Zhu Z.,Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention | Huang F.,Beijing Centres for Disease Control and Prevention | Liu D.,Beijing Centres for Disease Control and Prevention | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Adenovirus is one of the most common causes of viral acute respiratory infections. To identify the types of human adenoviruses (HAdVs) causing respiratory illness in Beijing, a sentinel surveillance project on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infection was initiated in 2011. Principal findings: Through the surveillance project, 4617 cases of respiratory infections were identified during 2011-2013. Throat swabs (pharynx and tonsil secretions) were collected from all the patients, and 15 different respiratory viruses were screened by multiplex one-step PCR method. 45 were identified as adenovirus-positive from sporadic and outbreak cases of respiratory infection by a multiplex one-step RT-PCR method, and a total of 21 adenovirus isolates were obtained. Five HAdV types among three species, including HAdV-3 (species HAdV-B), HAdV-4 (species HAdV-E), HAdV-7 (species HAdV-B), HAdV-55 (species HAdV-B), and an undefined HAdV type (species HAdV-C) were identified. The comparison results of the penton base, hexon, and fiber gene sequences of the Beijing HAdV-3, HAdV-4, HAdV-7, and HAdV-55 strains in this study and those from the GenBank database indicated significant spatial and temporal conservation and stability of sequences within the genome; however, the phylogenetic relationship indicated that both strain BJ04 and strain BJ09 isolated in 2012 and 2013, respectively, may have recombined between HAdV-1 genome and HAdV-2 genome within species HAdV-C, indicating intraspecies recombination. Conclusions: This study confirmed that at least 5 HAdV types including HAdV-3, HAdV-4, HAdV-7, HAdV-55 and an undefined HAdV type were co-circulating and were the causative agents of respiratory tract infections in recent years in Beijing. HAdV-3, HAdV-4, HAdV-7, and HAdV-55 showed the apparent stability of the genomes, while intraspecies recombination was identified in strain BJ04 and BJ09. The recombinants carrying penton base gene of HAdV-1 as well as hexon and fiber genes of HAdV-2 might be a novel type of HAdV worthy of further study. © 2015 Chen et al.

Zhang Y.,Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention | Wang H.,Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention | Xu S.,Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention | Mao N.,Chinese National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention | And 33 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2014

With the achievement of high coverage for routine immunization and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), measles incidence in mainland China reached its lowest level in 2010. The proportion of measles cases in the vaccination-targeted population decreased during 2007-2010 after the SIAs. More than 60% of measles cases were in adults or infants, especially in the coastal and eastern provinces during 2009 and 2010. A total 567 isolates of measles virus were obtained from clinical specimens from 27 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2009 and 2010. Except for two vaccine-associated cases, one genotype D4 strain, two genotype D9 strains, and four genotype D11 strains, the other 558 strains were genotype H1 cluster H1a. Genotype H1 has been the only endemic genotype detected in China since surveillance began in 1993. Only genotype H1 was found in mainland China during 1993-2008, except for one detection of genotype H2. More recently, multiple genotypes of imported measles were detected even with the background of endemic genetotype H1 viruses. Analysis of the 450-nucleotide sequencing window of the measles virus N gene showed that the overall genetic diversity of the recent geneotype H1 strains decreased between 2008 and 2010. The lower genetic diversity of H1 strains suggested that enhanced vaccination may have reduced the co-circulating lineages of endemic genotype H1 strains in mainland China. © 2014 The Authors.

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