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Gao L.,Peking Union Medical College | Tao Y.,Peking University | Zhang L.,Beijing Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention | Jin Q.,Peking Union Medical College
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Host genetic susceptibility has been suggested as one of the most important explanations for inter-individual differences in tuberculosis (TB) risk. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been studied as a candidate locus due to genetic polymorphisms that affects the activity of the receptor and subsequent down-stream vitamin D-mediated effects. METHODS: We reviewed published studies on VDR polymorphisms and TB susceptibility up to 15 April 2009 and quantitatively summarised associations of the most widely studied polymorphisms (FokI, TaqI, ApaI and BsmI) using meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 23 eligible studies were included in this review. Heterogeneous results were observed, which may be partly explained by the differences between populations. Among Asians, the FokI ff genotype showed a pronounced positive association (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.3-3.2), a significant inverse association was observed for the BsmI bb genotype (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.4-0.8), and marginal significant associations were found for TaqI and ApaI polymorphisms. However, none of the polymorphisms was significantly related to TB among Africans or South Americans. CONCLUSIONS: The association of VDR polymorphisms with risk of TB observed in our analyses supports the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency might play a role as risk factor during the development of TB. © 2010 The Union. Source

Wu S.,Peking University | He L.,Peking University | Li J.,Peking University | Wang J.,Peking University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Occupational Health | Year: 2012

Objectives: Little is known about workrelated musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among computer users mainland China. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of WMSDs in office workers in Beijing, and to determine risk factors for WMSDs in the neck (WMSDs-N). Methods: In a crosssectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was delivered to 720 office workers who use a computer as a main working tool. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for risk factors. Results: The prevalence of WMSDs of the neck, shoulder, wrist/hand, upper back and low back amongst office workers were 55.5, 50.7, 31.5, 26.2 and 6.6%, respectively. Both individual risk factor and working condition factors were found to be independently related to WMSDs-N. Conclusions: The WMSDs prevalence rates among office workers in Beijing, China, were high. The most affected area was the neck. Preventive measures for office work should be focused on the neck (e.g., rest breaks). © Japan Society for Occupational Health. Source

Chen W.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Chen W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Qian W.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Qian W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 11 more authors.
Cell Research | Year: 2015

Aging is associated with many complex diseases. Reliable prediction of the aging process is important for assessing the risks of aging-associated diseases. However, despite intense research, so far there is no reliable aging marker. Here we addressed this problem by examining whether human 3D facial imaging features could be used as reliable aging markers. We collected > 300 3D human facial images and blood profiles well-distributed across ages of 17 to 77 years. By analyzing the morphological profiles, we generated the first comprehensive map of the aging human facial phenome. We identified quantitative facial features, such as eye slopes, highly associated with age. We constructed a robust age predictor and found that on average people of the same chronological age differ by ± 6 years in facial age, with the deviations increasing after age 40. Using this predictor, we identified slow and fast agers that are significantly supported by levels of health indicators. Despite a close relationship between facial morphological features and health indicators in the blood, facial features are more reliable aging biomarkers than blood profiles and can better reflect the general health status than chronological age. © 2015 IBCB, SIBS, CAS. Source

Qu J.,Capital Medical University | Gu L.,Capital Medical University | Wu J.,Beijing Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention | Dong J.,Beijing Hai Dian Hospital | And 7 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in adults and adolescents is hampered by a lack of rapid and standardized tests for detection.Methods: CAP patients from 12 teaching hospitals were prospectively and consecutively recruited. Basic and clinical information, throat swabs and paired sera were collected. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected by IgG and IgM antibody tests, fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and culture. A comparative study of the diagnostic values of three methods, including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was conducted. A fourfold or greater increase of IgG antibody titers of paired sera was set as the diagnostic " gold standard" .Results: One hundred and twenty-five CAP patients (52.8% males, median age 47 years, range 14-85) were enrolled. Twenty-seven (21.6%) patients were diagnosed with acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections by the " gold standard" Specificity values of all three methods were around 90%. An increasing trend of sensitivity, positive predictive value and PLR was found, with the lowest in IgM testing (7.4%, 28.6% and 1.45), intermediate in FQ-PCR (40.7%, 50% and 3.63), and highest in culture (55.6%, 75% and 10.9).Conclusions: In the defined group of patients, there was a good agreement between positive rate of MP cultivation of throat swabs and acute M. pneumoniae infection (PLR of 10.9). Since the sensitivity is low in all of the evaluated methods, the logical approach would be to incorporate PCR, culture and serological tests for optimum diagnosis of acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in adults and adolescents. © 2013 Qu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Zhang Y.,Beijing Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention | Ji Y.,Peking University
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Studies in developed countries reveal that poor lifestyle choices triggering diseases typically cluster among children. However, there is insufficient evidence on the clustering of risk behaviors among children in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the clustering of risk behaviors and their social determinants among 4th-and 5th-grade learners in Beijing, China. Methods: The sample comprised of 967 learners from six primary schools enrolled migrant and resident learners by two-stage stratified cluster sampling. Prevalence denoted the risk behaviors and their clustering. A log-linear model was used to explore the clustering patterns. Ordinal logistic regression determined the influence of demographic characteristics, school environment, and family context on behavioral clustering. Results: The prevalence of none, one, two, and three or more risk factors was 61.2%, 20.0%, 10.8%, and 8.1% for infectious diseases and 46.0%, 30.6%, 15.4%, and 8.0% for chronic diseases, respectively. Some behaviors appeared dependent and were more likely to be observed together. The three most influential factors for infectious diseases were school type (odds ratio [OR] =4.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.00–6.66), school located in an inner suburb (OR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.18–0.38), and gender (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.42–0.74). Regarding risk behaviors for chronic diseases, clustering was not associated with household registration status and number of appliances, but was significantly associated with school type (OR = 5.36, 95% CI 3.72–7.73), school located in an inner suburb (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.43–0.81), and gender (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.47–0.78). School environment variables were the most significant contributor to the number of risk behaviors. Conclusions: The characteristics of schools enrolling migrants and residents influenced the number of risk behaviors. Therefore, improved school conditions and integrated behavioral interventions are particularly recommended for health promotion. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

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