Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention

Beijing, China

Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention

Beijing, China
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PubMed | Dongcheng District Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Peking University, Yanqing County Center for Diseases Control and Prevention and Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences | Year: 2015

To compare the differences of childrens health in different area, and to confirm if the prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms among children are closely associated with the air pollution.A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban area A and a suburban area B with different levels of air pollution in Beijing. Using a cluster sampling method, we recruited 4 564 children from 3 primary schools in urban A and 4 primary schools in suburban B. Respiratory symptoms were investigated using an international standardized questionnaire including characteristics of children, living conditions, respiratory diseases and symptoms and situation of parents. The concentrations of air pollutants for recent five years were obtained from Reports on the Quality of the Beijing Environment. SPSS 16.0 was used to analyze data.The prevalence of cough, persistent cough, phlegm, persistent phlegm, wheeze and asthma in A area were higher than those in B area [(62.2% vs. 59.9%), (6.3% vs. 3.1%), (42.4% vs. 37.4%),(3.6% vs. 2.4%),(13.3% vs. 9.9%)and(9.5% vs. 5.4%)]. Except for cough, cough with cold, cough without cold, the prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms in A area were significantly higher than those in B area (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed the prevalence of persistent cough, phlegm without cold, asthma in A area were significantly higher than those in B area (P<0.05).Respiratory diseases and symptoms among school-age children were closely associated with the level of air pollution.


PubMed | National Center for Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Chinese Association of STD & AIDS Prevention and Control and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

To explore models to improve HIV testing, linkage to care and treatment among men who have sex with men (MSM) in cooperation with community-based organizations (CBOs) in China.We introduced a new model for HIV testing services targeting MSM in six cities in 2013.These models introduced provision of rapid HIV testing by CBO staff and streamlined processes for HIV screening, confirmation of initial reactive screening results, and linkage to care among diagnosed people. We monitored attrition along each step of the continuum of care from screening to treatment and compared program performance between 2012 and 2013. According to the providers of two rapid tests (HIV screening), four different services delivery models were examined in 2013: Model A = first screen at CDC, second at CDC (Model A = CDC+CDC), Model B = first and second screens at CBOs (Model B = CBO+CBO), Model C = first screen at CBO, second at Hospital (Model C = CBO+Hosp), and Model D = first screen at CBO, second at CDC (Model D = CBO+CDC). Logistic regressions were performed to assess advantages of different screening models of case finding and case management.Compared to 2012, the number of HIV screening tests performed for MSM increased 35.8% in 2013 (72,577 in 2013 vs. 53,455 in 2012). We observed a 5.6% increase in proportion of cases screened reactive receiving HIV confirmatory tests (93.9% in 2013 vs. 89.2% in 2012, 2 = 48.52, p<0.001) and 65% reduction in loss to CD4 cell count tests (15% in 2013 vs. 43% in 2012, 2 = 628.85, p<0.001). Regarding linkage to care and treatment, the 2013 pilot showed that the Model D had the highest rate of loss between screening reactive and confirmatory test among the four models, with 18.1% fewer receiving a second screening test and a further 5.9% loss among those receiving HIV confirmatory tests. The Model B and the Model C showed lower losses (0.8% and 1.3%) for newly diagnosed HIV positives receiving CD4 cell count tests, and higher rates of HIV positives referred to designated ART hospitals (88.0% and 93.3%) than the Model A and Model D (4.6% and 5.7% for CD4 cell count test, and 68.9% and 64.4% for referring to designated ART hospitals). The proportion of cases where the screening test was reactive that were commenced on ART was highest in Model C; 52.8% of cases commenced on ART compared to 38.9%, 34.2% and 21.1% in Models A, B and D respectively. Using Model A as a reference group, the multivariate logistic regression results also showed the advantages of Models B, C and D, which increased CD4 cell count test, referral to designated ART hospitals and initiation of ART, when controlling for program city and other factors.This study has demonstrated that involvement of CBOs in HIV rapid testing provision, streamlining testing and care procedures and early hospital case management can improve testing, linkage to, and retention in care and treatment among MSM in China.


Zhang D.,General Hospital of PLA | Wang S.,General Hospital of PLA | Zhu L.,General Hospital of PLA | Tian Y.,General Hospital of PLA | And 4 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

We cocultured calycosin with human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (BEL-7402) to investigate the effect on cell proliferation. Calycosin can markedly block the cell growth in G1 phase (P<0.01) on the IC 50 concentration. There were seventeen genes involved in cell-cycle regulation showing differentially expressed in treated cells detected by gene chip. Eight genes were upregulated and nine genes were downregulated. Downregulated TFDP-1, CDKN2D, and SPK2 and upregulated CDC2 and CCNB1 might affect cell cycle of tumor cells. Furthermore, we checked the transcription pattern using 2D gel method to find different expression of proteins in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells after exposure to calycosin. Fourteen proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Twelve proteins expression were increased such as transgelin 2, pyridoxine 5′-phosphate, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1, peroxiredoxin 1, endoplasmic reticulum protein 29, and phosphoglycerate mutase 1. Only thioredoxin peroxidase and high-mobility group box1 proteins' expression decreased. Both genes and proteins changes might be relate to the mechanism of antitumor effect under treatment of calycosin. In conclusion, calycosin has a potential effect to inhibit the BEL-7402 cell growth by inhibiting some oncogene expression and increasing anticancer genes expression, what is more, by blocking cell cycle. © 2013 Dongqing Zhang et al.


Liu H.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | Liu H.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases | Jiang Y.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | Jiang Y.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases | And 14 more authors.
Tuberculosis | Year: 2013

The mycobacterial antigen PstS1 is a highly immunogenic and immunostimulatory component of the mycobacterial cell membrane and a good candidate for the diagnosis and vaccination against tuberculosis. Here we selected 180 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in China and 11 different Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) strains, amplified the gene of the PstS1 antigen and compared the sequences with those of four other Mycobacterium bovis and BCG strains from the NCBI genome website. Some of the mutations, especially 2 frameshift mutations, occurred in the PstS1antigen, which may have resulted in the protein function alteration and ongoing immune evasion. A unique single nucleotide polymorphism of the M. bovis and BCG strains was found in this antigen and may be useful for differentiating M. bovis and BCG strains from M. tuberculosis strains. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Song B.,Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention | Song B.,Agricultural University of Hebei | Ding X.,Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention | Ding X.,Capital Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu) | Year: 2012

Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a mixture of alkyl substituted benzyl dimethylammonium chloride homologs (C12-BAC, C14-BAC and C16-BAC). Chlorhexidine acetate is a widely used effective component in compound chemical disinfectants. A method for the simultaneous determination of chlorhexidine acetate and benzalkonium chloride in compound chemical disinfectants by capillary electrophoresis (CE) was established. The CE analysis was carried out using an uncoated capillary with 50μm i.d. and 37 cm total length. The running buffer was 150mmol/L NaH2PO4-62.5mmol/L H3PO4 (pH 2.5) containing 40% (v/v) acetonitrile. The sample medium was 50 mmol/L acetic acid-acetonitrile (1.1, v/v). The detection wavelength was 214nm. The factors such as the buffer concentration and pH, the content of acetonitrile, which influenced the separation and accurate assay of compound chemical disinfectants were investigated in detail. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the method were below 3.0% and 3.7%, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD, signal to noise ratio (S/N) = 3) for chlorhexidine acetate, C12-BAC, C14-BAC and C16-BAC were 0.3, 0.5, 0.5 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N =10) were 1.0, 1.5, 1.5, and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. The corrected peak area and the mass concentration of the four components mentioned above showed good linear relationships within the ranges of 1.0 - 400mg/L, 1.5 - 200mg/L, 1.5 -200mg/L and 1.5 -200mg/L, with linear correlation coefficients (Υ) of 0.999 5,0.999 8, 0.999 7 and 0.999 8, respectively. The established method was used for the determination of the four disinfectants in the compound chemical disinfectants. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by the high performance liquid chromatographic method.


Xie N.,Agricultural University of Hebei | Xie N.,Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention | Ding X.,Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention | Ding X.,Capital Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu) | Year: 2013

A novel method for the separation and determination of o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX) and triclosan in daily chemicals and compound chemical disinfectants in a single run by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was established. The factors such as the buffer concentration and pH, the concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the sample Buffer, were investigated in detail. The analysis was carried out using a 50 μm uncoated capillary of 40. 2 cm in total length (effective length: 30 cm). The running buffer was 20 mmol/L Na2B4O7 and 80 mmol/L SDS. The sample buffer was 2 mmol/L Na2B4O7-8 mmol/L SDS (without PH adjustment) containing 10% (v/v) methanol. The detection wavelength was 214 nm. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the corrected peak areas of the three components were in the range of 1. 1% - 3.8%, and the RSDs of migration times were less than 0. 9%. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) were 4. 0, 0. 4 and 0. 4 mg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) were 12, 1. 2, and 1. 2 mg/L for OPA, PCMX and triclosan, respectively. The corrected peak areas and the concentrations of the three components showed good linear relationship within the ranges of 12-2 000 mg/L, 1. 2-200 mg/L and 1. 2-200 mg/L with the correlation coefficients of 0. 999 4, 0. 999 3 and 0. 999 5 for OPA, PCMX and triclosan, respectively. The method was used for the determination of the three components in compound chemical disinfectants, hand washing liquids, soaps and a toothpaste. The results showed that the three components could be assayed in a single run with simple sample pretreatment, rapidity, accuracy and low cost, and the method is convenient for routine analysis.


Liu W.,Capital Medical University | Liu W.,Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention | Qiao H.,Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention | Zhao S.,Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu) | Year: 2016

A new method for the accurate assay of four components (polyhexamethylene guanide (PHMG), polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), chlorhexidine acetate (CHA) and benzethonium chloride (BTC)) in compound chemical disinfectants by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with bi-micelle was developed. An uncoated fused-silica capillary with 50 μm i.d. and 50.2 cm total length (effective length: 40 cm) under a separation voltage of 24 kV was used. The separation buffer consisted of 20 mmol/L Na2B4O7, 30 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 5 mmol/L sodium deoxycholate (SD) and 0.8 g/L polyethyleneglycol (PEG) 20000. A 1: 10 dilution of the running buffer with ultrapure water was used as the sample buffer. The injection pressure and time were 3.448 kPa and 12 s, respectively. Liquid samples could be directly injected after dilution with sample buffer. Solid samples were extracted with 10 mL of sample buffer twice and the two extracted solutions were merged together and then directly injected. The factors such as the buffer concentration and pH, the concentrations of SDS and SD, the concentration of PEG 20000 and the sample extraction solution which influence the separation were investigated in detail. The corrected peak areas versus the concentrations of the four components showed good linear relationships within the range from 3 mg/L to 140 mg/L with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the four components were all 1 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively. The average recoveries at three spiked levels were in the range of 84.1%-109.6% with RSDs all less than 6%. Eleven samples were analyzed and the results met well with the specified content. The PHMG could be easily discriminated from PHMB. The MEKC method is suitable for the supervision of compound chemical disinfectants.


Jiang Y.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | Liu H.C.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | Zheng H.J.,Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai | Tang B.,Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai | And 10 more authors.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate four candidate variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains. Methods: Genomic sequences for two M. tuberculosis strains (CCDC5079 and CCDC5180) were generated, and using published sequence data, four candidate VNTR loci were identified. The VNTRs were used to genotype 225 Chinese clinical M. tuberculosis complex strains. The discriminatory power of the VNTRs was evaluated using BioNumerics 5.0 software. Results: The Hunter-Gaston Index (HGI) for BJ1, BJ2, BJ3, and BJ4 loci was 0.634, 0.917, 0.697, and 0.910, respectively. Combining all four loci gave an HGI value of 0.995, thus confirming that the genotyping had good discriminatory power. The HGI values for BJ1, BJ2, BJ3, and BJ4, obtained from Beijing family strain genotyping, were 0.447, 0.878, 0.315, and 0.850, respectively. Combining all four loci produced an HGI value of 0.988 for genotyping the Beijing family strains. We observed unique patterns for M. bovis and M. africanum strains from the four loci. Conclusion: We have shown that the four VNTR loci can be successfully used for genotyping M. tuberculosis complex strains. Notably, these new loci may provide additional information about Chinese M. tuberculosis isolates than that currently afforded by established VNTR loci typing. © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences.


Ma Y.,Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To study the concentration level and characteristics of indoor particle matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) under extreme weather condition.METHODS: During the period of haze in January 2013 and the fireworks and firecracker setting off in the Spring Festival of February 2013, three monitoring sites located indoor and outdoor were respectively selected by Beijing CDC, considering the vertical and horizontal distance, windows tightness and human activity indoor. PM2.5 samples were collected by filters and measured by laboratory weight method. At the same time, the meteorological data was also collected.RESULTS: The median (quartiles) of overall concentration level of indoor PM2.5 was 87.76 µg/m(3) (52.05-174.48 µg/m(3)) and was lower than that of outdoor PM2.5 (128.79 µg/m(3), 95.14-221.88 µg/m(3); Z = -4.13, P < 0.01). The concentration of three indoor monitoring sites was different (χ(2) = 23.09, P < 0.01). The PM2.5 concentrations of monitoring point B in poor sealing window was the highest (94.05 µg/m(3); 63.46-189.17 µg/m(3)) and point C in sealed and less human activity, which was the lowest (77.89 µg/m(3), 51.19-144.40 µg/m(3)). The concentration level of indoor PM2.5 in the haze period (273.22 µg/m(3), 223.44-308.47 µg/m(3)) was higher than the overall concentration level of indoor PM2.5 (Z = -5.20, P < 0.01). The concentration level of indoor PM2.5 in the fireworks and firecracker period (167.90 µg/m(3), 129.15-187.90 µg/m(3)) was higher than that in the Spring Festival period (7 days, 72.76 µg/m(3), 36.97-145.30 µg/m(3), Z = -2.34, P < 0.05) and the overall concentration level of indoor PM2.5 (Z = -1.98, P < 0.05); however, it was lower than the concentration level of indoor PM2.5 in the haze period (Z = -3.43, P < 0.01). The I/O ratio (indoor concentration/outdoor concentration) was all less than 1.00 except 4, which was between 1.00-1.09. The mean I/O ratio in monitoring site B, monitoring site A and monitoring site C was 0.69 ± 0.21, 0.64 ± 0.23 and 0.58 ± 0.18, respectively, show significant bias (F = 22.85, P < 0.01). During the period of haze, the fireworks and firecracker and fine weather (when ambient PM2.5 concentration was lower than the standard value of 75 µg/m(3)), the mean I/O ratio was 0.87 ± 0.14, 0.68 ± 0.08 and 0.51 ± 0.18, respectively, showing significant bias (F = 29.88, P < 0.05). Under conditions of snow and high wind speed ( ≥ 3.4 m/s), PM2.5 concentration decreased to the valley point. The valley value of I/O ratio only occurred after several days of high windy weather. Moreover, the PM2.5 concentration level of indoor air showed a delayed 1-2 days after the haze weakened or disappeared.CONCLUSION: Mass concentration of indoor PM2.5 increased significantly with increases of outdoor concentration. Haze and setting off fireworks/firecracker could lead to a serious decline of indoor air quality (IAQ), and the improvement of IAQ was lagging behind the outdoor changes.

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