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Zeng S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang Y.,Beijing Botanical Garden | Teixeira Da Silva J.A.,Miki Cho Post Office | Wu K.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

Cypripedium orchids have high horticultural value. The populations of most species are very geographically restricted and they are becoming increasingly rare due to the destruction of native habitats and illegal collection. Reduction of the commercial value through large-scale propagation in vitro is a preferable option to reduce pressure from illegal collection. Cypripedium species are commercially propagated via seed germination in vitro. This review focuses on in vitro seed germination and provides an in-depth analysis of the seed biology of this genus. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Source

Jiang X.-R.,Beijing Forestry University | Peng J.-G.,Beijing Forestry University | Guo L.,Beijing Botanical Garden | Gao R.-F.,Beijing Forestry University | Liu Y.,Beijing Forestry University
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University

The study of physiological and biochemical responses of leaf reddening during overwintering in broadleaf evergreens has theoretical significance to reveal the coloration mechanism and can also provide practical guide for maintaining the green landscape in northern China. In the present study, we measured the contents of pigments and their distributions, the related indexes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in five different leaf color phenotypes: Green (GG), Green Brown (GB), Brown (BB), Red Brown (RB) and Red (RR) which were subjected to different illumination in Buxus microphylla 'Belvedere'. The results showed that chlorophylls in green leaves without red region were distributed uniformly across the leaf, while in the other phenotypes, red pigments (when presented) were mostly located in the upper palisade mesophyll and the lower spongy tissue whose red depth was consistent with the phenotype color and the carotenoids accumulation. Compared with GG, winter reddening leaves (GB, BB, RB and RR) suffered from more serious photoinhibition and had higher content of carotenoids (Car). The related indexes of ROS, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) also increased significantly. Change of Car content was positively correlated with H2O2 level, and the redder phenotypes had the higher contents in both of the two indexes and the lower photosystems II (PSII) photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm). The content of total chlorophyll [Chl (a+b)] was the lowest in RR while the highest in RB. There was no certain pattern for the changes of POD activities in different leaf color phenotypes. Additionally, the contents of superoxide radical (O2-) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the two reddest phenotypes RB and RR were the lowest and O2- showed the significantly negative correlation with carotenoids. In summary, these results suggest that the carotenoids accumulation not only has a relationship with the winter leaves reddening but also has a significant correlation with H2O2. The increase of H2O2 might enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity and the upregulation of Car content, which protects the red leaves from oxidative damage. The overwintering leaf color of B. microphylla 'Belvedere' is closely related with the ROS, but different ROS types played varying roles in the coloration. H2O2 may play a positive role and it is suggested for further study. ©, 2015, Beijing Forestry University. All right reserved. Source

Wang Z.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Alonso-Zarazaga M.A.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Zhou D.,Beijing Botanical Garden | Zhang R.,CAS Institute of Zoology

The preimaginal stages including egg, mature larva and pupa of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 were described and figured, diagnostic characters of larva and pupa were discussed, and corresponding biological information was supplied. The nomenclature of frontal setae in the larva compared with curculionid weevils, the absence of the hypopharyngeal bracon in the larva, and the metafemoral setae in the pupa were discussed. Common and different characters among the larvae of P. botanicum, Aspidapion radiolus (Marsham, 1802) and A. aeneum (Fabricius, 1775) were also provided. © Zhiliang Wang et al. Source

Liu D.H.,Beijing Botanical Garden | Zhao S.W.,Beijing Botanical Garden
Acta Horticulturae

To find out the suitable light levels for the growth and ornamental characteristics of Hosta plantaginea, Hosta ensata, Hosta -Gold Drop- and Hosta -Canadian Blue-, leaf growth index, biomass, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content and number of flowers was carefully investigated under different light levels (100, 50, 30 and 15% of full irradiance). The results showed that the appropriate light intensity of the growth and flowering was different among the four hosta plants. For Hosta ensata and -Canadian Blue-, the suitable light level was 50% of full irradiance; and for -Gold Drop- and Hosta plantaginea, the favorite light level was 30% of full irradiance. Source

Luo X.,China Agricultural University | Zhou D.,Beijing Botanical Garden | Li H.,China Agricultural University | Cheng W.,Beijing Botanical Garden | Cai W.,China Agricultural University

Agriosphodrus dohrni is redescribed. The male genitalia is described and illustrated for the first time. Some biological characters of this reduviid, such as the predatory behavior, mating, oviposition, hatching, molting, emergence, colonization, and cannibalism, are noted. Copyright © 2010 Magnolia Press. Source

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