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Dai P.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Ge Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Lin Y.,Xiamen Environmental Protection Vehicle Emission Control Technology Center | Su S.,Xiamen Environmental Protection Vehicle Emission Control Technology Center | And 2 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2013

Exhaust and evaporative emissions including regulated and unregulated pollutants emitted from a passenger car fueled with gasoline and M15 fuel (M15 means the fuel was consisted with 85%gasoline and 15% methanol by volume) were discussed in this paper. To improve the measurement accuracy of the unregulated pollutants, the dilution air refine system (DAR) was introduced. The exhaust emission tests were performed on the chassis dynamometer, emission factors were measured by a constant volume sampling (CVS) system equipped with DAR over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The evaporative emission tests were performed in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED). Carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and methanol were sampled through the battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dintrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), Tenax TA and silica gel respectively. The test results show that comparing with gasoline operations, THC and CO from passenger car fueled with M15 decreased by 16% and 7% while the NOX increased by 85%. The formaldehyde emitted from M15 fueling passenger car was almost two times larger than that from gasoline fueling. For the evaporative emissions, diurnal losses are far more than hot losses and turn out to be the main contributor to the evaporative emissions. For different fuels, evaporative THC from M15 increased by 63%. Given the unregulated pollutants, carbonyls and VOCs increased by 19% and 23%. Moreover, methanol from M15-fueling car was 128 times higher than that from gasoline fueling. It is important to research new canister to decrease the evaporative emissions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fu M.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Ding Y.,Vehicle Emission Control Center | Ge Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Yu L.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

Ship emissions are widely recognized as a relevant source of the total air pollution and have a remarkable impact on air quality of the sea, territorial waters and coastal areas. To assess this impact, various emission models have been developed to calculate the emission inventory of ship based on ship activity data. However, few studies in China have collected the emission factors of local ship which are decisive factors in accurate assessment of ship emission inventory. This study intends to obtain emission data of inland ships on the Grand Canal of China by conducting on-board emission tests. We measured CO, HC NOx and PM emission from 7 inland ships of different engine powers, and derive distance-based and fuel-based emission factors on the basis of the cruise and manoeuvring (including port departure and port arrival) operating modes. The results show that average distance-based emission factors of CO, HC and PM for manoeuvring mode are higher than those for cruise mode. For NOx, average distance-based emission factors for cruise mode are higher than those for port arrival mode but lower than those for port departure mode. Particular number (PN) distribution analysis indicates that larger amounts of small size PM (Dp<0.01μm) appeared on manoeuvring mode, which can affect regional air quality and human health. The average fuel-based emission factor of NOx in this study is 1.4-4.3 times higher than those in on-board studies. When compared with estimated Tier 1 standard limit (in unit of gkg-1 fuel), NOx in this study is nearly twice of Tier 1. The higher NOx emission indicates that stricter emission strategies and policies should be implemented to control ship emission in China. It is noticeable that distance-based emission factors of four pollutants are higher with the increase of engine loads. © 2013.

Wang S.X.,Chinese Research Institute of Highway | Wang S.X.,China Agricultural University | Zhang L.,Chinese Research Institute of Highway | Zhang L.,China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

In order to study the fatigue reliability of taxis, a test method that correlated typical user road with proving ground reliability road is proposed. According to the result of investigation, after taking the road test on the user road, the load spectrum of taxis on the condition of typical user road is obtained. Then the rain flow counting method is used to obtain the load distribution matrixes through analyzing the two groups of data that are tested above, and with pseudo damage as a quantitative basis for the calculation of taxis fatigue damage that generated from load spectrum, an equivalent relationship is established between the two. The calculation results indicate that the ratio of damage of the typical user road to proving ground reliability road is 1 to 148.8, if regarding 600,000 km as total scrapped mileage of a taxi, 4,000 km reliability test on proving ground can achieve the same damage. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Wang A.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Ge Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Tan J.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Fu M.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

On-road emission and fuel consumption (FC) levels for Euro III and IV buses fueled on diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) were compared, and emission and FC characteristics of buses were analyzed based on approximately 28,700 groups of instantaneous data obtained in Beijing using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). The experimental results revealed that NOx and PM emissions from CNG buses were decreased by 72.0% and 82.3% respectively, compared with Euro IV diesel buses. Similarly, these emissions were reduced by 75.2% and 96.3% respectively, compared with Euro III diesel buses. In addition, CO2, CO, HC, NOX, PM emissions and FC of Euro IV diesel buses were reduced by 26.4%, 75.2%, 73.6%, 11.4%, 79.1%, and 26.0%, respectively, relative to Euro III diesel buses. The CO2, CO, HC, NOx, PM emissions and FC factors all decreased with bus speed increased, while increased as bus acceleration increased. At the same time, the emission/FC rates as well as the emission/FC factors exhibited a strong positive correlation with the vehicle specific power (VSP). They all were the lowest when VSP < 0, and then rapidly increased as VSP increased. Furthermore, both the emission/FC rates and emission/FC factors were the highest at accelerations, higher at cruise speeds, and the lowest at decelerations for non-idling buses. These results can provide a base reference to further estimate bus emission and FC inventories in Beijing. © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Liang B.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Liang B.,Beijing Automotive Research Institute Co. | Ge Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Tan J.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Aerosol Science | Year: 2013

Two Euro 4 gasoline passenger vehicles (one gasoline direct injected vehicle and one port fuel injected vehicle) were tested over the cold start New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Each vehicle was respectively fueled with gasoline and M15 methanol gasoline. Particle number concentrations were measured by the electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). Particle masses were measured by gravimetric method and estimated from the number distributions using two density distributions (one is constant with the particle size and one is power law related with the size). The first 7 stages of ELPI were used for estimation. The results show that for each vehicle, PM masses measured by gravimetric method, the total PM numbers measured by ELPI and estimated PM masses for M15 are lower than those for gasoline. For each kind of fuel, PM masses by two methods and total PM numbers from the GDI vehicle are higher than those from the PFI one. PM number distribution curves of the four vehicle/fuel combinations are similar. All decline gradually and the maximum number of each curve occurs in the first stage. More than 99.9% numbers locate in the first 8 stages of which diameters are less than 1 μm. PM number emissions correlate well with the acceleration of the two vehicles. The estimated particle masses were much lower than the gravimetric measurements. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Liang B.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Liang B.,Beijing Automotive Research Institute Co. | Ge Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Tan J.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Qiche Gongcheng/Automotive Engineering | Year: 2014

A comparative study on unregulated emissions from a direct injection gasoline vehicle fueled with gasoline and M15 methanol-gasoline is conducted. Test cycles include a regulated cycle and three unregulated cycles simulating traffic conditions in Beijing. The results show that for each fuel, emissions of total aldehydes and ketones, major aldehydes and ketones and total BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes) over regulated cycle at hot start mode are lower than those at cold start mode. For each test cycle, formaldehyde emission with M15 is higher than that with gasoline. Emissions of total aldehydes and ketones, major aldehydes and ketones, formaldehyde and total BTEX with high speed cycle are the lowest among the four cycles at hot start mode.

Fu M.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Ge Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Wang X.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Tan J.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDVs) have become the most important sources of pollutants affecting urban air quality in China. In recent years, a series of emission control strategies and diesel engine polices have been introduced that require advanced emission control technology. China and Europe mostly have used Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with urea to meet the Euro IV diesel engine emission standard. In this study, two Euro IV busses with SCR were tested by using potable emission measurement system (PEMS) to assess NOx emissions associated with urban, suburban and freeway driving patterns. The results indicated that with the SCR system, the urea injection time for the entire driving period increased with higher vehicle speed. For freeway driving, the urea injection time covered 71%-83% of the driving period; the NOx emission factors from freeway driving were lower than those associated with urban and suburban driving. Unfortunately, the NOx emission factors were 2.6-2.8-, 2.3-2.7- and 2.2-2.3-fold higher than the Euro IV standard limits for urban, suburban and freeway driving, respectively; NOx emission factors (in g/km and g/(kW.h)) from the original vehicles (without SCR) were higher than their corresponding vehicles with SCR for suburban and freeway driving. Compared with the IVE model results, the measured NOx emission factors were 1.60-1.16-, 1.77-1.27-, 2.49-2.44-fold higher than the NOx predicted by the IVE model for urban and suburban driving, respectively. Thus, an adjustment of emission factors is needed to improve the estimation of Euro IV vehicle emissions in China.

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