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Han Y.,China Agricultural University | Han Y.,Southwest University | Liu E.,Xuzhou Institute of Technology | Liu L.,Beijing Academy of Food science | And 5 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

The rheological, emulsification, thermostability and certain physicochemical properties of two purified exopolysaccharides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LPL061 were studied. EPS1 showed entangled spider mesh structure that composed of dense rope with homogeneous hexagonal particles under scanning electron microscopy. EPS2 had a porous sponge structure with uniform cylindrical particles. The two exopolysaccharides showed higher intrinsic viscosity and better emulsification activity with sunflower seed oil, rice oil, olive oil and peanut oil compared to guar gum. EPS1 is the most promising one for applications in the industry, as it had high intrinsic viscosity, apparent viscosity and thermostablity in aqueous solution, dense entangled structure and good emulsification activity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jin A.,Water Resources University | Jin A.,China Institute of Geo Environment Monitoring | He J.,Water Resources University | Chen S.,Hainan Institute of Geo Environment Monitoring | Huang G.,Beijing Academy of Food science
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2014

Vertical distribution characteristics and transport mechanisms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil profiles (0-5.5 m) of different water irrigation areas in the southeast suburb of Beijing were analyzed and compared. 16 priority PAHs on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) list were analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relationship between the properties of soil and PAHs was also studied by statistical analyses. The results showed that total PAH concentrations in the topsoils of the wastewater irrigation (WWI) area, reclaimed water irrigation (RWI) area, groundwater irrigation (GWI) area were much higher than those in the deep soils, with the concentrations of 726.0, 206.8 and 42.8 μg kg-1 (dry wt), respectively. The low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (2-3 ring) including naphthalene (Nap), phenanthrene (Phe), fluorene (Fl) dominated the layers (0.5-5.5 m) underneath the surfaces. The migration of LMW PAHs was faster than that of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs and LMW PAHs were transported in dissolved matter. The different soil textures of three sites caused the differences in the variation ranges of PAHs in the profiles. The statistical analyses showed a significant linear positive correlation between PAHs and total organic carbon (TOC). The 2-4 ring PAHs were detected in the wastewater and reclaimed waters, which was consistent with those in the soil profiles. The presence of PAHs in the soil profiles was mainly due to the irrigation of wastewater. Wastewater reuse guidelines and standards for irrigation should be established urgently. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.


Huang G.,Beijing Academy of Food science | Huang G.,Water Resources University | Huang Y.,National Research Center for Geoanalysis | Hu H.,Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology Prospecting Institute of Heilongjiang Province | And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2015

A novel two-layer heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification (HAD) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was proposed for remediating nitrate-nitrogen contaminated groundwater in an oxygen rich environment, which has a packing structure of an upstream pine bark layer and a downstream spongy iron and river sand mixture layer. The HAD PRB involves biological deoxygenation, heterotrophic denitrification, hydrogenotrophic denitrification, and anaerobic Fe corrosion. Column and batch experiments were performed to: (1) investigate the NO3--N removal and inorganic geochemistry; (2) explore the nitrogen transformation and removal mechanisms; (3) identify the hydrogenotrophic denitrification capacity; and (4) evaluate the HAD performance by comparison with other approaches. The results showed that the HAD PRB could maintain constant high NO3--N removal efficiency (>91%) before 38 pore volumes (PVs) of operation (corresponding to 504d), form little or even negative NO2--N during the 45 PVs, and produce low NH4+-N after 10 PVs. Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria played a dominant role in oxygen depletion via aerobic respiration, providing more CO2 for hydrogenotrophic denitrification. The HAD PRB significantly relied on heterotrophic denitrification. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification removed 10-20% of the initial NO3--N. Effluent total organic carbon decreased from 403.44mgL-1 at PV 1 to 9.34mgL-1 at PV 45. Packing structure had a noticeable effect on its denitrification. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Water Resources University, Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology Prospecting Institute of Heilongjiang Province, Yunnan HITECH Environmental Protection Technology Co., National Research Center for Geoanalysis and Beijing Academy of Food science
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2015

A novel two-layer heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification (HAD) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was proposed for remediating nitrate-nitrogen contaminated groundwater in an oxygen rich environment, which has a packing structure of an upstream pine bark layer and a downstream spongy iron and river sand mixture layer. The HAD PRB involves biological deoxygenation, heterotrophic denitrification, hydrogenotrophic denitrification, and anaerobic Fe corrosion. Column and batch experiments were performed to: (1) investigate the NO3(-)-N removal and inorganic geochemistry; (2) explore the nitrogen transformation and removal mechanisms; (3) identify the hydrogenotrophic denitrification capacity; and (4) evaluate the HAD performance by comparison with other approaches. The results showed that the HAD PRB could maintain constant high NO3(-)-N removal efficiency (>91%) before 38 pore volumes (PVs) of operation (corresponding to 504d), form little or even negative NO2(-)-N during the 45 PVs, and produce low NH4(+)-N after 10 PVs. Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria played a dominant role in oxygen depletion via aerobic respiration, providing more CO2 for hydrogenotrophic denitrification. The HAD PRB significantly relied on heterotrophic denitrification. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification removed 10-20% of the initial NO3(-)-N. Effluent total organic carbon decreased from 403.44mgL(-1) at PV 1 to 9.34mgL(-1) at PV 45. Packing structure had a noticeable effect on its denitrification.


Li S.,Water Resources University | Li M.,Water Resources University | Luo X.,Water Resources University | Huang G.,Beijing Academy of Food science | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016

Benzoic acid can affect the iron-oxide mineral dissolution and react with hydroxyl radical. This study investigated its effect on 1,2-dichloroethane removal process by siderite-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide and persulfate. The variation of benzoic acid concentrations can affect pH value and soluble iron concentrations; when benzoic acid varied from 0 to 0.5 mmol/L, pH increased while Fe2+ and Fe3+ concentrations decreased, resulting in 1,2-dichloroethane removal efficiency which decreased from 91.2 to 5.0 %. However, when benzoic acid varied from 0.5 to 10 mmol/L, pH decreased while Fe2+ and Fe3+ concentrations increased, resulting in 1,2-dichloroethane removal efficiency which increased from 5.0 to 83.4 %. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Li S.,Water Resources University | Huang G.,Beijing Academy of Food science | Kong X.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Yang Y.,Water Resources University | And 3 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2014

In situ remediation of ammonium-contaminated groundwater is possible through a zeolite permeable reactive barrier (PRB); however, zeolite's finite sorption capacity limits the long-term field application of PRBs. In this paper, a pilot-scale PRB was designed to achieve sustainable use of zeolite in removing ammonium (NH4+-N) through sequential nitrification, adsorption, and denitrification. An oxygen-releasing compound was added to ensure aerobic conditions in the upper layers of the PRB where NH4+-N was microbially oxidized to nitrate. Any remaining NH4+-N was removed abiotically in the zeolite layer. Under lower redox conditions, nitrate formed during nitrification was removed by denitrifying bacteria colonizing the zeolite. During the long-term operation (328 days), more than 90% of NH4+-N was consistently removed, and approximately 40% of the influent NH4+-N was oxidized to nitrate. As much as 60% of the nitrate formed in the PRB was reduced in the zeolite layer after 300 days of operation. Removal of NH4+-N from groundwater using a zeolite PRB through bacterial nitrification and abiotic adsorption is a promising approach. The zeolite PRB has the advantage of achieving sustainable use of zeolite and immediate NH4+-N removal. © IWA Publishing 2014.


Huang G.,Water Resources University | Huang G.,Beijing Academy of Food science | Fallowfield H.,Flinders University | Guan H.,Flinders University | Liu F.,Water Resources University
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2012

A novel heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification (HAD) approach supported by mixing granulated spongy iron, methanol, and mixed bacteria was proposed for the remediation of nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3-N) contaminated groundwater in a dissolved oxygen (DO)-rich environment. The HAD process involves biological deoxygenation, chemical reduction (CR) of NO 3-N and DO, heterotrophic denitrification (HD), and autotrophic denitrification (AD). Batch experiments were performed to: (1) investigate deoxygenation capacities of HAD; (2) determine the contributions of AD, HD, and CR to the overall NO 3-N removal in the HAD; and (3) evaluate the effects of environmental parameters on the HAD. There were 174, 205, and 2,437 min needed to completely reduce DO by the HAD, spongy iron-based CR, and by the mixed bacteria, respectively. The HAD depended on abiotic and biotic effects to remove DO. CR played a dominant role in deoxygenation in the HAD. After 5 days, approximately 100, 63.0, 20.1, and 9.7 % of the initial NO 3-N was removed in the HAD, HD, AD + CR, and CR incubations, respectively. CR, HD, and AD all contributed to the overall NO 3-N removal in the HAD. HD was the most important NO 3-N degradation mechanism in the HAD. There existed symbiotic, synergistic, and promotive effects of CR, HD, and AD within the HAD. The decrease in NO 3-N and the production of nitrite-nitrogen (NO 2-N) and ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4-N) in the HAD were closely related to the C to N weight ratio. The C to N ratio of 3.75:1 was optimal for complete denitrification. Denitrification rate at 27.5°C was 1.36 times higher than at 15.0°C. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Huang G.,Water Resources University | Huang G.,Beijing Academy of Food science | Liu F.,Water Resources University | Yang Y.,Hydro Engineering Team of Sichuan Metallurgical Geology & Exploration Bureau | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

A novel sequential permeable reactive barrier (multibarrier), composed of oxygen-releasing compound (ORC)/clinoptilolite/spongy iron zones in series, was proposed for ammonium-nitrogen-contaminated groundwater remediation. Column experiments were performed to: (1) evaluate the overall NH4 +–N removal performance of the proposed multibarrier, (2) investigate nitrogen transformation in the three zones, (3) determine the reaction front progress, and (4) explore cleanup mechanisms for inorganic nitrogens. The results showed that NH4 +–N percent removal by the multibarrier increased up to 90.43 % after 21 pore volumes (PVs) at the influent dissolved oxygen of 0.68∼2.45 mg/L and pH of 6.76∼7.42. NH4 +–N of 4.06∼10.49 mg/L was depleted and NOx −–N (i.e., NO3 −–N + NO2 −–N) of 4.26∼9.63 mg/L was formed before 98 PVs in the ORC zone. NH4 +–N of ≤4.76 mg/L was eliminated in the clinoptilolite zone. NOx −–N of 10.44∼12.80 mg/L was lost before 21 PVs in the spongy iron zone. The clinoptilolite zone length should be reduced to 30 cm. Microbial nitrification played a dominant role in NH4 +–N removal in the ORC zone. Ion exchange was majorly responsible for NH4 +–N elimination in the clinoptilolite zone. Chemical reduction and hydrogenotrophic denitrification both contributed to NOx −–N transformation, but the chemical reduction capacity decreased after 21 PVs in the spongy iron. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Water Resources University, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences and Beijing Academy of Food science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research | Year: 2014

In situ remediation of ammonium-contaminated groundwater is possible through a zeolite permeable reactive barrier (PRB); however, zeolites finite sorption capacity limits the long-term field application of PRBs. In this paper, a pilot-scale PRB was designed to achieve sustainable use of zeolite in removing ammonium (NH(4)(+)-N) through sequential nitrification, adsorption, and denitrification. An oxygen-releasing compound was added to ensure aerobic conditions in the upper layers of the PRB where NH(4)(+)-N was microbially oxidized to nitrate. Any remaining NH(4)(+)-N was removed abiotically in the zeolite layer. Under lower redox conditions, nitrate formed during nitrification was removed by denitrifying bacteria colonizing the zeolite. During the long-term operation (328 days), more than 90% of NH(4)(+)-N was consistently removed, and approximately 40% of the influent NH(4)(+)-N was oxidized to nitrate. As much as 60% of the nitrate formed in the PRB was reduced in the zeolite layer after 300 days of operation. Removal of NH(4)(+)-N from groundwater using a zeolite PRB through bacterial nitrification and abiotic adsorption is a promising approach. The zeolite PRB has the advantage of achieving sustainable use of zeolite and immediate NH(4)(+)-N removal.


Zhang J.,China Meat Research Center | Zhao J.,Beijing Academy of Food science | Zhao Y.,Beijing Academy of Food science | Yang C.,Beijing Academy of Food science | Wang W.,Beijing Academy of Food science
Resources, Environment and Engineering - 2nd Technical Congress on Resources, Environment and Engineering, CREE 2015 | Year: 2016

To reveal the biochemical characteristics, proteins in Soy Sauce Residues (SSR) was prepared by centrifugation in combination with lyophilization. The proteins in SSR were identified by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Results showed that acidic polypeptides (A1a, A2, A1b, A4) and basic polypeptides (B2, B1a, B1b, B3, B4) of glycinin from soybean proteins were the predominant proteins in SSR. In order to make better use of the residual protein in SSR, the optimal conditions of the cellulase and alcalase were analyzed. The optimal conditions for two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of soy sauce residue were as follows: pre-treatment by 0.01% Celluclast 1.5 L at pH 5.0, 55°C for 1 h, together with treatment by 0.05% Alacase 2.4 L at pH 8.0, 65°C for 2 h. The hydrolysis yield of protein (Soluble nitrogen index) could reach 62.45%. The analysis of the crude protein dissolution rate indicated that enzyme combinations could hydrolyze the proteins of SSR effectively. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

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