Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Science

Beijing, China

Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Science

Beijing, China
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Yang X.,CAS Institute of Botany | Yang X.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Baskin J.M.,University of Kentucky | Baskin C.C.,University of Kentucky | Huang Z.,CAS Institute of Botany
Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics | Year: 2012

Studies on the ecological importance of seed coat mucilage have provided valuable information about its roles in critical stages of the plant life cycle. Seed mucilage may, by providing a moist environment and maintaining metabolic activity in the seed, promote seed development. In seed dispersal, seed mucilage influences topochory, epizoochory, endozoochory and hydrochory by anchorage of seeds to soil surface, lubrication or changing the specific weight of the seed. In arid environments, seed mucilage can prevent seeds from drying or initiate DNA repair mechanisms, thereby maintaining the soil seed bank. Seed mucilage reduces oxygen diffusion to the seed and thus has a role in regulating seed dormancy. Due to it being hydrophilous, acting as a physical barrier and containing chemicals, seed mucilage is proposed to promote seed germination in favorable environments. In seedling growth, seed mucilage may lubricate the radicle as it penetrates the soil and be degraded by soil microfloras and thus promote seedling growth. Further investigation of seed mucilage for more species in diverse habitats from the perspectives of evolution, genetics, proteomics, phylogeny and plant-microbe interactions would contribute substantially to our understanding about its ecological importance. © 2012 Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics.

Gao S.-Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gao S.-Q.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Science | Chen M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu Z.-S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic domain/leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) in the promoter regions of ABA-inducible genes in plants. A novel bZIP transcription factor gene, GmbZIP1, encoding 438 amino acids with a conserved bZIP domain composed of 60 amino acids was isolated from salt-tolerant soybean cv. Tiefeng 8. Southern blotting showed that only one copy was present in the soybean genome. Phylogenetic analyses showed that GmbZIP1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP family and was most closely related to AtABF2 and OsTRAB1. The expression of GmbZIP1 was highly induced by ABA, drought, high salt and low temperature; and GmbZIP1 was expressed in soybean roots, stems and leaves under different stress conditions. GmbZIP1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed onion epidermal cells. Overexpression of GmbZIP1 enhanced the responses of transgenic plants to ABA and triggered stomatal closure under stresses, potentially leading to improved tolerances to several abiotic stresses such as high salt, low temperature and drought in transgenic plants. Furthermore, overexpression of GmbZIP1 affected the expression of some ABA or stress-related genes involved in regulating stomatal closure in Arabidopsis under ABA, drought and high salt stress conditions. A few AREB elements were detected in the promoter region of those ABA or stress-related genes, suggesting that GmbZIP1 regulates the ABA response or stomatal closure mediated by those downstream genes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Moreover, GmbZIP1 was used to improve the drought tolerance trait of Chinese wheat varieties BS93. Functional analysis showed that overexpression of GmbZIP1 enhanced the drought tolerance of transgenic wheat, and transcripts of GmbZIP1 were detected in transgenic wheat using RT-PCR. In addition, GmbZIP1 overexpression did not result in growth retardation in all transgenic plants, suggesting that GmbZIP1 may be a valuable genetic resource for engineering stress tolerance of crops. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Chen M.,Sun Yat Sen University | Huang P.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen L.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Science
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

Concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in 28 surface soils samples collected from Urumqi, northwest China, for examination of distributions, source contributions, and potential health effects. The results indicated that the sum of 16 PAHs concentration ranged from 331 to 15,799 μg kg-1 (dw) in soils, with a mean of 5,018 ± 4,896 μg kg-1 (n = 28). The sum of seven carPAHs concentration ranged from 4 to 1,879 μg kg-1 (dw; n = 28). The highest ΣPAHs concentrations were found at roadsides and industrial sites, followed by those at parks, rural areas, and business/residential areas. Coal combustion, emission of diesel and gasoline from vehicles, and petroleum source were four sources of PAHs as determined by PMF analysis, which contributed 51.19, 19.02, 18.35, and 11.42 % to the PAH sources, respectively. Excellent coefficients of correlation between the measured and predicted PAHs concentrations suggested that the PMF model was very effective to estimate sources of PAHs in soils. Incremental lifetime cancer risk values at the 95th percentile due to human exposure to surface soils PAHs in Urumqi were 2.02 × 10-6 for children and 2.72 × 10-5 for adults. The results suggested that the current PAHs levels in soils from Urumqi were pervasive and moderately carcinogenic to children and adults. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Li Y.,Northwest University, China | Li Y.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Wen C.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Wen C.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

In cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., the spine and skin colors are two important fruit quality traits for variety improvement. In this study, we investigated the inheritance of spine and mature fruit skin colors in F2 and F3 populations derived from a cross between two inbred lines WI7200 (black spine and orange fruit skin colors) and WI7201 (white spine and creamy fruit skin colors). We confirmed that a single, dominant gene, B, controlled both black spine color and orange mature fruit color. Initial framework mapping with microsatellite markers located the B locus in the distal region of the short arm of cucumber chromosome 4. Fine mapping was conducted with draft genome scaffold-assisted chromosome walking and stepwise increase of mapping population sizes, which allowed for the assignment of the B locus to a 50 kb genomic DNA region with two flanking markers that were 0.06 and 0.09 cM, respectively, from the B locus in a mapping population of 2,001 F2 plants. Gene annotation of this 50 kb region identified six genes including one encoding for a R2R3-MYB transcription factor. Sequence alignment of the R2R3-MYB homologs between the two parent inbreds identified a 1 bp deletion in the third intron of this gene in WI 7201. A molecular marker based on this indel was co-segregating with the spine and fruit colors. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed higher level of expression of this R2R3-MYB gene in WI7200 than in WI7201 in both immature and mature fruits. This R2R3-MYB gene seems to be the best candidate gene for the B locus conditioning black spine and orange mature fruit colors of cultivated cucumber. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA).

Zhang S.-Z.,Northwest University, China | Li J.-J.,Northwest University, China | Shan H.-W.,Northwest University, China | Zhang F.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Liu T.-X.,Northwest University, China
Biological Control | Year: 2012

Propylaea japonica is one of the most promising biological control agents in northern China. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the preimaginal development, immature survival, reproduction, longevity and fecundity of the ladybeetle, . P. . japonica, when reared on five different aphids species, . Aphis gossypii Glover, . Myzus persicae (Sulzer), . Aphis craccivora Koch, . Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) and . Chaitophorus populeti (Panzer) and to quantify their relative suitability as prey. The results of the study indicate that the pre-adult development was shorter (9.9. ±. 0.1. days) when fed on . A. . craccivora but was the longest (13.5. ±. 0.2. days) on . A. . pisum. Immature survival, adult emergence, growth index, development rate, male and female longevity, oviposition period, and fecundity were maximal when . P. japonica were fed on . A. . gossypii. In contrast these biological parameters were minimal on . A. . pisum. The ladybird adult's fresh weight was maximal after feeding on . A. . gossypii and minimal on . A. . pisum. Further analysis revealed linear relationships between rate of development and weight of adult females; and longevity and fecundity of adult females. The results of the present study suggest the order of suitability of aphid species for . P. . japonica is . A. . gossypii>. A. . craccivora>. M. persicae>. C. populeti>. A. . pisum. The present study further propose that either the mass-rearing of . P. . japonica in the laboratory can be carried out by supplying the best food or the understanding its relative abundance in the field in relation to the availability of different prey species. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Tang Z.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Tang Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhang L.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Xu C.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | And 5 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2012

The male sterility of thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum) is strictly controlled by temperature. The early phase of anther development is especially susceptible to cold stress. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in plant development and in responses to environmental stress. In this study, deep sequencing of small RNA (smRNA) libraries obtained from spike tissues of the TGMS line under cold and control conditions identified a total of 78 unique miRNA sequences from 30 families and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) derived from two TAS3 genes. To identify smRNA targets in the wheat TGMS line, we applied the degradome sequencing method, which globally and directly identifies the remnants of smRNA-directed target cleavage. We identified 26 targets of 16 miRNA families and three targets of tasiRNAs. Comparing smRNA sequencing data sets and TaqMan quantitative polymerase chain reaction results, we identified six miRNAs and one tasiRNA (tasiRNA-ARF [for Auxin-Responsive Factor]) as cold stress-responsive smRNAs in spike tissues of the TGMS line. We also determined the expression profiles of target genes that encode transcription factors in response to cold stress. Interestingly, the expression of cold stress-responsive smRNAs integrated in the auxin-signaling pathway and their target genes was largely noncorrelated. We investigated the tissue-specific expression of smRNAs using a tissue microarray approach. Our data indicated that miR167 and tasiRNA-ARF play roles in regulating the auxin-signaling pathway and possibly in the developmental response to cold stress. These data provide evidence that smRNA regulatory pathways are linked with male sterility in the TGMS line during cold stress. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Wang M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen L.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Science | Chen S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ma Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2012

The short-term effects of six types of nanoparticles (NPs) (Kaolin, montmorillonite, hydroxyapatite, Fe 3O 4, α-Fe 2O 3 and γ-Fe 2O 3) on the EC50s (Cd) for root growth of four plant species (i.e. tomato, cucumber, carrot and lettuce) were investigated using standard toxicity testing. NPs and Cd influencing on growth of the plant were as well as tested, respectively. Scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with the element dispersive spectrometer (EDS) was used to observe the interaction of NPs prepared with EC50s (Cd) as the solvents with the root surface and identify the mechanisms of Cd toxicity reduction to the root growth induced by NPs additives. The results showed that the seedling growth was negatively related to the exposure concentration of Cd, among the tested plants, the sensitive endpoint appeared in the order of tomato>carrot≈lettuce>cucumber according to the ECx measured. The root growth was not significantly inhibited by the presence of NPs except for HAP on tomato, but was noticeably promoted by particular NPs suspensions prepared with EC50s (Cd) as the solvents at higher test concentrations compared with the controls (Cd, EC50s) with one exception for Kaolin. Microscopy images showed roots of tested plants exposed to Cd exhibited a decrease in root diameter and root wilt, and the disintegration of the root epidermis, the clutter root surface showed the evident stress under Cd solution, after the addition of NPs, many root hairs and no disintegration on the surfaces of the root system can be observed, NPs crystal also occurred on the plants root surface. The element dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed that the precipitation mainly contributed to phytotoxicity reduction by the NPs. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Zhang S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xiao Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhao J.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Wang F.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Zheng Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Molecular Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2013

The maize smut fungus, Sporisorium reilianum f. sp. zeae, which is an important biotrophic pathogen responsible for extensive crop losses, can infect maize by invading the root during the early seedling stage. In order to investigate disease-resistance mechanisms at this early seedling stage, digital gene expression analysis, which applies a dual-enzyme approach, was used to identify the transcriptional changes in the roots of Huangzao4 (susceptible) and Mo17 (resistant) after root inoculation with S. reilianum. During the infection in the roots, the expression pattern of pathogenesis-related genes in Huangzao4 and Mo17 were significantly differentially regulated at different infection stages. The glutathione S-transferase enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species levels also showed changes before and after inoculation. The total lignin contents and the pattern of lignin depositions in the roots differed during root colonization of Huangzao4 and Mo17. These results suggest that the interplay between S. reilianum and maize during the early infection stage involves many important transcriptional and physiological changes, which offer several novel insights to understanding the mechanisms of resistance to the infection of biotrophic fungal pathogens. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Chen L.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Chen L.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Science | Zhang S.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2010

Field experiments were carried out to investigate the dissipation of boscalid in strawberries and soils and its residual levels in strawberries at two different sites. Boscalid (50% water dispersible granule) was applied at two dosages (349.5 and 525.0 g a.i./ha). Soils and strawberry samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 days after application of boscalid. The results showed that boscalid dissipation pattern followed the first order kinetics with the half-lives of 4.9 and 6.4 days in strawberries and 6.1 and 8.0 days in the soils of Jinan and Beijing trail sites, respectively. The boscalid residues in strawberries were below the EU maximum residue level (5 mg/kg) after three days of application. This study suggests that boscalid is acceptable to apply for strawberries under the recommended dosage. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Tang Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Tang Z.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Zhang L.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Yang D.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2011

The male sterility of a wheat thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) line is strictly controlled by temperature. When the TGMS line BS366 was exposed to 10°C from the pollen mother cell stage to the meiosis stage, a few pollen grains were formed and devoid of starch. We report here a large-scale transcriptomic study using the Affymetrix wheat GeneChip to follow gene expression in BS366 line anthers in response to cold stress. Notably, many cytoskeletal signaling components were gradually induced in response to cold stress in BS366 line anthers. However, the cytoskeleton-associated genes that play key roles in the dynamic organization of the cytoskeleton were dramatically repressed. Histological studies revealed that the separation of dyads occurred abnormally during male meiosis I, indicating defective male meiotic cytokinesis. Fluorescence labelling and subcellular histological observations revealed that the phragmoplast was defectively formed and the cell plate was abnormally assembled during meiosis I under cold stress. Based on the transcriptomic analysis and observations of characterized histological changes, our results suggest that cold stress repressed transcription of cytoskeleton dynamic factors and subsequently caused the defective cytokinesis during meiosis I. The results may explain the male sterility caused by low temperature in wheat TGMS lines. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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