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Yang Z.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forest Science | Zhou L.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forest Science | Lv Y.,China Agricultural University | Li H.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forest Science
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

Long-term effects of inorganic and corn stalks organic nutrient sources on yield, soil organic carbon(SOC) and the relationship between crop yield and SOC were investigated in Dry-Land Farming Institute of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Hengshui, Hebei Province, China from 1981 to 2005. Hengshui is a part the North China Plain and the dominant cropping systems are Winter wheat-maize rotations. Recently the use of organic manure with grain crops has almost disappeared. This could reduce soil fertility and crop productivity in the long run. There were sixteen treatments applied to both wheat and maize seasons: Inorganic fertilizers as main plots and corn stalks as subplots and the main plot and subplot all have four levels expressed A and B respectively. So there are sixteen treatments with three replicates were set (A1,A2,A3,A4)*(B 1,B2,B3,B4). After more than 20 years crop yield and SOC decreased in treatment of without fertilizers and only applicate corn stalks just sustain it. Combine application of inorganic fertilizers and corn stalks increase SOC and crop yield very strongly. For crop yield the more fertlizers the more increase. But the SOC will decrease as the more inorganiac fertlizer application and increase with the increase of corn stalks. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Yang Z.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forest Science | Lv Y.,China Agricultural University | Li H.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forest Science
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2015

The Ordos sand land is a typical sandy desertification area in northern China. Changes of soil organic matter and the combined humus in soil aggregate could be the index of soil desertification. The objectives of this study were: (i) to analyze the changes in soil organic carbon during the desertification process; (ii) to assess the distribution of soil combined humus and its changes in different aggregates. In this study, we selected the typical communities that represented a series of plant succession stages in the desertification process. Soil samples were collected from the plots under three successional plant communities and analyzed for total organic matter (SOM) under different degenerated gradients. We classified the aggregates into different groups and determined the combined humus in different size aggregates using the mechanical analysis method. The results showed that SOM decreased remarkably in surface soil (0-5 cm) from the steppe grass Stipa Bungeana to desert grass Cynanchum komorovii, during the desertification process. The fractions of soil combined humus were 36.63%, 28.84%, and 39.53% for loose combined humus, stable combined humus and tight combined humus with respectively average content. All fractions of soil combined humus carbon content decreased as the aggregate size decreased. In the desertification process at the Ordos sand land, the stable combined humus and tight combined humus decreased strongly in > 50 μm aggregate. The decreasing of humus carbon is mainly due to the losing of stable combined humus, especially in large size aggregates. With the development of the desertification, the soil organic carbon decreased with remarkable difference among different stages and the combined humus decreased with remarkable difference in different size aggregates among different stages. © 2015 Coastal Education and Research Foundation, Inc.

Jun-Gang Y.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forest Science | Jun-Gang Y.,China Agricultural University | Xin-Ping C.,China Agricultural University | Lin-Lin C.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

Ammonia-volatilization loss is a common problem for the cropping fields in the North China Plain. A two-year field experiment was conducted to study nitrogen losses and the resultant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield responses to four types of nitrogen fertilizers that were top-dressed on winter-wheat in Dongbeiwang Town, Beijing. Ammonium Bicarbonate (AC), Urea (U), Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) or Ammonium Sulphate-Nitrate (ASN) were applied at 190 kg N ha -1. A control (CK) that received no N was included. Soil nitrate (N0 3-N) dynamics were measured and Nbalance was calculated for the period of the two winter-wheat seasons. The results showed that the apparent nitrogen losses from the AC, U, CAN or ASN treatments were 79, 42, 12, or 33 kg ha -1 in 2005 and 64, 45, -15 or -5 kg ha -1 in 2006, respectively. The grain yields from the U, CAN or ASN treatments ranged from 3932 to 5012 kg ha -1 during the two wheat seasons, much greater than those from the AC or the CK treatments. The nitrogen use efficiency for the AC, U, CAN, or ASN treatments was 43, 52, 59, or 56% in 2005 and 35, 46, 51 or 53% in 2006, respectively. Soil NO 3-N accumulation mainly occurred in the 0-60 cm profile and very small amounts of NO 3-N were detected in the 60-90 cm profile after harvest in the N fertilization treatments. These results suggested that in the North China Plain, which is characterized by a shortage of water resources and high soil pH, CAN is a better nitrogen fertilizer because of its lower nitrogen losses, higher nitrogen use efficiency and higher grain yield than the traditional nitrogen fertilizers, urea or ammonium bicarbonate. © 2011 Academie Journals Inc.

Yang Z.C.,China Agricultural University | Yang Z.C.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forest Science | Zhao N.,China Agricultural University | Huang F.,China Agricultural University | Lv Y.Z.,China Agricultural University
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2015

The aim of the study is to analyze the effects of different fertilization of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration and crop yields after a 22 years long-term field experiment. The crop yields and SOC were investigated from 1981 to 2003 in Dry-Land Farming Research Institute of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Hebei Province, China. The dominant cropping systems are winter wheat-summer corn rotation. There were totally sixteen treatments applied to both wheat and corn seasons: inorganic fertilizers as main plots and corn stalks as subplots and the main plots and subplots all have four levels. The results revealed: after 22 years, mixed application of inorganic fertilizers and crop residuals, the SOC and crop yields substantially increased. Higher fertilizer application rates resulted in greater crop yields improvement. In 2002-2003, wheat and corn for the highest fertilizer inputs had the highest yield level, 6400kgha-1 and 8600kgha-1, respectively. However, the SOC decreased as the excessive inorganic fertilizer input and increased with the rising application of corn stalks. The treatment of the second-highest inorganic fertilizer and the highest corn stalks had the highest SOC concentration (8.64gCkg-1). Pearson correlation analysis shows that corn and winter wheat yields and the mineralization amount of SOC have significant correlation with SOC at p<0.05 level. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Wang Z.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He K.-L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang F.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forest Science | Lu X.,Jilin Agricultural University | Babendreier D.,CABI Switzerland
Biological Control | Year: 2014

Corn (Zea mays L., Poaceae) is ranked first as food crop in planting area and in total yield production in China. Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, is the most destructive pest of corn in China, causing 6-9 million tons of yield loss per year on average. Trichogramma has been released for control of Asian corn borer at large scale since the 1970's, partly triggered by the fact that Trichogramma dendrolimi can be successfully mass reared on eggs of the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi. Eggs of different hosts, such as Eri-silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini, A. pernyi, the Rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella and also artificial host eggs were tested and successfully used to mass-rear various Trichogramma species in China since then. The mass production technology and release technique of Trichogramma have been greatly improved in recent years making Trichogramma production and field application more practical and cost efficient. Nowadays, nearly 4 million hectares of corn are treated with T. dendrolimi, Trichogramma chilonis and Trichogramma ostriniae annually, mainly in North-east China. Large ecological and economic benefits have been achieved in areas where Trichogramma have been released continuously for many years. This includes an increase of natural populations of Trichogramma and other natural enemies in cornfields, the avoidance of any insecticide treatments in corn, a reduction in mycotoxin contamination and overall higher yields. The release of Trichogramma for controlling Asian corn borer and other lepidopteran pests became one of the key measures in corn IPM in China. Trichogramma applications combined with other non-chemical control measures for corn insect pests IPM began a new era in China as the new concept of "Public Plant Protection, Green Plant Protection" was put forward in 2006 as the guideline for plant protection in China. The future prospects and challenges of Trichogramma application are also discussed in this review. © 2013.

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