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Liu Z.,Chinese PLA General Hospital | Ouyang L.,University of Sichuan | Peng H.,BeiGene Beijing Co. | Zhang W.-Z.,Chinese PLA General Hospital
Cell Proliferation | Year: 2012

Oridonin, an active diterpenoid isolated from traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has drawn rising attention for its remarkable apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing activity and relevant molecular mechanisms in cancer therapy. Apoptosis is a well known type of cell death, whereas autophagy can play either pro-survival or pro-death roles in cancer cells. Accumulating evidence has recently revealed relationships between apoptosis and autophagy induced by oridonin; however, molecular mechanisms behind them remain to be discovered. In this review, we focus on highlighting updated research on oridonin-induced cell death signalling pathways implicated in apoptosis and autophagy, in many types of cancer. In addition, we further discuss cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy induced by oridonin, in cancer. Taken together, these findings open new perspectives for further exploring oridonin as a potential anti-tumour agent targeting apoptosis and autophagy, in future anti-cancer therapeutics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Liu Z.,Chinese PLA General Hospital | Zhang Q.,Sichuan University | Peng H.,BeiGene Beijing Co. | Zhang W.-Z.,Chinese PLA General Hospital
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Lectins, a group of carbohydrate-binding proteins ubiquitously distributed into plants and animals, are well-known to have astonishing numerous links to human cancers. In this review, we present a brief outline of the representative animal lectins such as galectins, C-type lectins, and annexins by targeting programmed cell death (or apoptosis) pathways, and also summarize these representative lectins as possible anti-cancer drug targets. Taken together, these inspiring findings would provide a comprehensive perspective for further elucidating the multifaceted roles of animal lectins in apoptosis pathways of cancer, which, in turn, may ultimately help us to exploit lectins for their therapeutic purposes in future drug discovery. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

Lu W.,Soochow University of China | Geng D.,Soochow University of China | Sun Z.,BeiGene Beijing Co. | Yang Z.,Soochow University of China | And 3 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a key regulator during embryonic development, while in adults, it has limited functions such as stem cell maintenance and tissue repair. The aberrant activity of the Hh signaling in adults has been linked to numerous human cancers. Inhibition of Hh signaling therefore represents a promising approach toward novel anticancer therapies. The Smoothened (Smo) receptor mediates Hh signaling. Here we report a new series of Smo antagonists which were obtained by a scaffold hopping strategy. Compounds from this new scaffold demonstrated decent inhibition of Hh pathway signaling. The new scaffold can serve as a starting point for further optimization. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Wang Y.,BeiGene Beijing Co. | Mogg R.,Merck And Co. | Lunceford J.,Merck And Co.
Biometrics | Year: 2012

Biomarkers play an increasing role in the clinical development of new therapeutics. Earlier clinical decisions facilitated by biomarkers can lead to reduced costs and duration of drug development. Associations between biomarkers and clinical endpoints are often viewed as initial evidence supporting the intended purpose. As a result, even though it is widely understood that correlation is not proof of a causal relationship, correlation continues to be used as a metric for biomarker qualification in practice. In this article, we introduce a causal correlation framework where two different types of correlations are defined at the individual level. We show that the correlation estimate is a composite of different components, and needs to be interpreted with caution when used for biomarker qualification to avoid misleading conclusions. Otherwise, a significant correlation can be concluded even in the absence of a true underlying association. We also show how the causal quantities of interest are testable in a crossover design and provide discussion on the challenges that exist in a parallel group setting. © 2011, The International Biometric Society. Source

Yao Z.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Torres N.M.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Tao A.,New York University | Gao Y.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 7 more authors.
Cancer Cell | Year: 2015

ERK signaling requires RAS-induced RAF dimerization and is limited by feedback. Activated BRAF mutants evade feedback inhibition of RAS by either of two mechanisms. BRAF V600 mutants are activated monomers when RAS activity is low; all other activating BRAF mutants function as constitutive RAS-independent dimers. RAF inhibitors effectively inhibit mutant monomers, but not dimers; their binding to one site in the dimer significantly reduces their affinity for the second. Tumors with non-V600E BRAF mutants are insensitive to these drugs, and increased expression of BRAF V600E dimers causes acquired resistance. A compound that equally inhibits both sites of mutant RAF dimers inhibits tumors driven by either class of mutants or those BRAF V600E tumors with dimer-dependent acquired resistance to monomer-specific inhibitors. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

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