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Zirkohi M.M.,Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology | Lin T.-C.,Feng Chia University
Nonlinear Dynamics

This paper presents a novel interval type-2 fuzzy-neural network indirect adaptive sliding mode control (SMC) approach (T2FNNAS) for a suspension system including actuator dynamics. It is equipped with a novel moving sliding surface in which the slope and intercept of sliding surface are simultaneity adjusted by adaptive interval T2FNN to improve controller robustness against system uncertainties and unknown disturbances. As a result, the drawbacks of the conventional SMC, such as chattering effect and a required priori knowledge of the bounds of uncertainties, are removed. Based on the Lyapunov synthesis approach, the free parameters of the adaptive FNN are tuned on-line. One advantage of the proposed approach is that, by incorporating the Lyapunov design approach and SMC method into the adaptive fuzzy-neural control scheme to derive the control law, the proposed approach not only assures closed-loop stability but also achieves a good performance for the overall system. Another advantage of the proposed method is that to relax the requirement for the bound of approximation error, and an estimation mechanism is also employed to observe the bound of it real time. Design of the control system consists of two interior loops. The inner loop is a force control of the hydraulic actuator, while the outer loop is position controller that use T2FNNAS. Finally, a comparison between the proposed approach and a robust model reference adaptive control approach is provided. Simulation results confirm that the proposed approach effectively improves both the passenger comfort and the ride quality of the car. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Safdarian R.,Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology
Mechanics Research Communications

Abstract The Marciniak and Kuczynski (M-K) model for necking prediction in sheet metal forming was based on the in-plane forming. Bending which was resulted from out-of-plane forming was not considered in the M-K model. Whereas most of the sheet metal forming processes and also standard test of hemispherical punch for forming limit diagram are out-of-plane forming, it is important to consider bending effect in the M-K model. Therefore, in this study bending strain is added to stretching strain of M-K model and a new model is presented for forming limit diagram (FLD) prediction. This modified M-K (MM-K) model is written in the python programming language and it is used as a post-processing criterion for FLD prediction in the commercial software Abaqus. The MM-K model was used to predict FLD and weld line movement in the tailor welded blank forming. It was found that the predicted results by MM-K model are in a good agreement with experimental data. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Aberoumand A.,Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences

Processing made fish less susceptible to spoilage. Fish are rich in protein content but the protein content is reduced with processing gave a better result when long-time preservation was carried out. Aim of this study was comparison of proximate analysis of some fresh and processed seafoods. Raw materials and processed seafoods (canned mackerel tuna, frozen Sea-Bream and Pressed caviar) were obtained from different firms and analyzed. Analysis carried out according AOAC methods. Moisture, protein and fat values of tuna fish were estimated to be 51, 23.9 and 21.4%, respectively. In this study, moisture content of pressed caviar was 36%, protein content was 34.4% and fat content was 16.7%, carbohydrate and energy values were 4.9% and 316 kcal/100 g, respectively. Pressed and smoked seafoods contained lower amount of moisture but higher amounts of the other components than raw materials (p<0.05). Canned mackerel tuna, frozen sea bream and pressed caviar also contained higher amounts of fat, carbohydrate and energy, respectively (p<0.05) than raw material. Except canning with water, all processing technologies decreased the moisture content but increased energy values (p<0.05) of the fish. It is concluded that processed seafoods are rich in chemical components and very nutritive. Canned tuna with salted water may be advised for low-calorie diets. Caviar pressed was one the best sea foods that was produced in Iran. Since fishes are consumed as a major protein source in food, it is very important that the protein content should not be compromised during table preparation. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Cheraghi M.,Khorramshahr University of Marine science and Tecknology | Pourkhabbaz H.,Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology | Javanmardi S.,University of Tehran
Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Background and purpose: Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals that is neurotoxic and can enter the human body mainly through consumption of contaminated seafood and get accumulated in tissues. In this study, the human health risk due to consumption of Mullet fish (Liza abu) in Karoon river, was investigated by measuring the concentration of mercury in muscle samples. Materials and methods: A total of 30 fresh fish was collected from six stations in Karoon River (located in Khuzestan province, Iran). Concentration of mercury was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and cold vapor technique. Results: The average concentration of mercury in muscle of Liza abu was 0.26 μg/g of fresh weight (0.75 μg/g dry weight) which was less than the allowable amount for human consumption determined by the international organizations such as USEPA, WHO, FAO and the FDA. Conclusion: HQ Index exceeded 1 (1.11), therefore, the consumption of the Liza abu is a threat to the consumers' health and a consumption permitted rate of 27 g/day is recommended. Source

Khodadoust S.,Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology | Toori M.A.,Yasuj University of Medical Sciences | Talebianpoor M.S.,Yasuj University of Medical Sciences
RSC Advances

In this study, the stir bar was coated with ZnS-NPs loaded on activated carbon (AC) (ZnS-AC) as well as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([EMIM][PF6]) ionic liquid (IL) using a sol gel technique which was used for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of carbofuran and propoxur. The extracted analytes were then quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with an ultra violet detector. The best extraction performance for carbofuran and propoxur was obtained through the optimization of the factors affecting SBSE including the pH of the sample solution, ionic strength, extraction time, volume of desorption solvent, desorption time, and stirring speed. The fractional factorial design (FFD) was used to find the most important factors, which were then optimized by the central composite design (CCD) and the desirability function (DF). Under the optimal experimental conditions, the proposed method has linear ranges over 0.002-30 μg mL-1 with detection limits of 0.0003-0.0005 μg mL-1 and good RSDs (and n = 6) of 3.3-4.5% with the enrichment factors (EFs) in the range of 75.6-81.6-fold for carbofuran and propoxur. The developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of two N-methylcarbamate in environmental water samples such as tap water, river water, and mineral water. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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