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de Weerth C.,Behavioural science Institute | Fuentes S.,Laboratory of Microbiology | de Vos W.M.,Laboratory of Microbiology
Gut microbes | Year: 2013

Up to around a quarter of all infants cry excessively and unsoothably during their first months of life. This phenomenon has been termed "infant colic." In most cases, physicians are unable to determine the cause of the colicky behavior. In a recent study, and by means of comprehensive and deep analyses of more than 1000 intestinal phylotypes, we found that infants with colic showed lower microbiota diversity and stability than control infants in the first weeks of life. Colic-control differences in the abundance of certain bacteria were also found at 2 weeks. These microbial signatures possibly explain the colic phenotype. In this addendum we discuss other recent publications on the subject and present previously unpublished analyses of our own. We address possible mechanisms behind the links between microbiota and crying, and present future directions that could further help elucidate the hypothesized relations between intestinal microbiota and infant colic. Source

Kindt K.C.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Kindt K.C.,Behavioural science Institute | Van Zundert R.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Engels R.C.,Radboud University Nijmegen
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Abstract. Background: Research has indicated that depression prevention programs attenuate the development of symptoms of depression in adolescents. To implement these programs on a large scale, implementation in a school setting with teachers providing the programs is needed. In the present study, the effectiveness of the Dutch depression prevention program Op Volle Kracht (OVK) provided by school teachers during school hours with adolescents from high risk neighborhoods will be tested. The mediating effects of cognitive distortions and alexithymia will be evaluated as well. We hypothesize that the OVK program will prevent or decrease reported depressive symptoms, and that this association will be mediated by cognitive distortions and alexithymia. Methods/Design. Schools with at least 30% of their pupils living in low income areas in the Netherlands are invited to participate in the study. Classes from vocational training up to pre-university level are eligible and 1324 adolescents (11-14 years) will be participating in the study. Randomisation will be done at class level, randomly assigning participants to an intervention group (OVK) and a control group (care as usual), stratifying by school level (high versus low). Trained school teachers will be delivering the program, which covers cognitive-behavioral and social problem-solving skills. Longitudinal data will be collected with self-report measurements administered in the school setting at baseline, post intervention and at two follow ups (at 6 and 12 months). Primary outcome is the level of depressive symptoms, and secondary outcomes include: cognitive errors, response style, attributional style, alexithymia, stressful life events, substance use, happiness, and school grades. Discussion. If the OVK program proves to be effective when it is provided by school teachers, a structural implementation of the program in the school curriculum will enhance the quality of the lives of adolescents and their families and will reduce costs in health care. In addition, the results of the study advances current knowledge on the underlying mechanisms of the development of depression and may aid the improvement of depression prevention programs in general. Trial registration. Dutch Trial Register NTR3110. © 2012 Kindt et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Mufaddel A.A.,Community Mental Health Services | Al-Hassani G.A.,Behavioural science Institute
Neurosciences | Year: 2014

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr's disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr's disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr's disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr's disease. Source

Jauregui-Lobera I.,Pablo De Olavide University | Jauregui-Lobera I.,Behavioural science Institute
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2014

Introduction: The pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of anorexia nervosa (AN) remain unclear. With respect to the neuropsychological functioning, the executive functions have been reported to be altered, especially cognitive flexibility and decision-making processes. Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the current state of the neuropsychological studies focused on anorexia nervosa, especially those highlighting the executive functions. Methods: This was done by means of a searching process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analysed papers. Eventually we have to mention other published reviews and a hand-search. Results and discussion: Comparing AN patients and healthy controls the results remain controversial and so remains the comparison of different eating disorders with respect to the neuropsychological dysfunction. The role of variables such as depression, anxiety and obsessionality needs to be clarified. There seems to be some base to state that some commonalities exist in the so-called extreme weight conditions (anorexia, obesity). The link between neuropsychological dysfunction in AN and biomarkers remains unclear. The role of neuropsychological deficits in AN, as initial factors or simply as mere consequences, remains unclear too. The link between the body image disturbances and the neuropsychological dysfunction needs to be clarified. The similarities between the AN neuropsychological dysfunction and that found in other mental disorders may be considered up to date as a mere approach. The same applies to the relationship between the AN patients' neuropsychological performance and personality or gender. Source

Daradkeh F.,Behavioural science Institute
The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse | Year: 2011

The primary aim of this study was, for the first time to our knowledge, to examine the level of death anxiety (thanatophobia) in drug dependents attending the outpatient clinic in a psychiatric hospital and to examine the relationship of demographic variables to death anxiety. Eighty-five patients were recruited from outpatient psychiatric attendees at the psychiatric hospital, Kingdom of Bahrain. The death anxiety scale was administered to assess death anxiety, and a clinical psychiatric interview was used to assess psychopathology. The mean age of the sample was 36.8 years (SD=8.8). All subjects who participated in the study were Arabic males; the majority of them were primary school (i.e. first 5 years of education or schooling) educated (n=57; 67%) and single (n=48; 56.5%). The total mean of death anxiety score of the drug abusers was high (3.52±.95). One-way ANOVA showed that there was no significant difference among the scores the drug dependents received on the death anxiety scale related to different groups of age, education, type of the drug used, or the number of times of taking drugs per day. However, there was a significant difference in the level of control of use, marital status, duration of use, cigarettes smoking, and level of religiosity. The results of this study indicate that the level of death anxiety is high, in general, among drug abusers and that being divorced, not actively practicing a religious faith, having at least 1-10 years or more than 20 years history of drug abuse, and smoking at least 20 or more cigarettes per day significantly increases the level of death anxiety. Source

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