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Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Social Sciences | Award Amount: | Year: 2001

None


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Social Sciences | Award Amount: | Year: 2001

Recent epidemiological research shows a considerable incidence of socioemotional and behavioral problems among. Dutch 5- and 6-year-olds. The majority of these problems remain undetected until the children enter elementary school (Brugman et al., 1999). Although developmental psychopathologists now generally assume that such problems have their roots in childrens early development histories, the early identification of very young children at serious risk for developing such pathology is hampered by a lack of knowledge about the developmental trajectories leading towards different patterns of competence and (mal) adaptation at early school age. The present project aims to contribute to this field of knowledge.\A number of studies have identified a variety of early precursors and potential determinants of socioemotional and behavioral problems. From these studies, it can be concluded that both the onset and maintenance of problematic development across the early years are multiply determined by factors from various domains. Only a few studies have looked at the contribution of multiple factors from several domains in the same study. The present study is the first to include the most important predictors from all relevant domains, longitudinally assessed both in infancy and in toddlerhood, at home as well as in the day care setting, to predict development outcomes at early school age. The proposed project concerns the third measurement wave, at age 5, of a longitudinal study with a sample of 129 children who have been seen earlier with their parents at the ages of 15 and 28 months. The 15- and 28 month-assessment aimed at identifying the multiple determinants of parent-child interaction and child development. As developmental outtcomes and potential markers of development problems at those ages, we assessed the childrens attachment security, cognitive development, ego-resiliency, behavior towards the caregiver , such as compliance and negativity, and behavior problems as rated by parents and by day care teachers. As outcome measures at age 5, the occurrence of behavior problems wil be assessed, as well as the childrens competence and functioning in the most important domains at that age, including ego-resiliency, conscience development, internal working models of self and of the relationship with both parents, peer competence and adaptation to the school setting. In addition, the current quality of parent-child interaction will be observed.


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Social Sciences | Award Amount: | Year: 2002

This project focuses on the influence of parents and peers on the development of smoking and drinking behavior of adolescents. Although in the past decades numerous research projects have concentrated on the impact of parents on their off-springs risk behaviors (Engels, 2000; Petraitis & Flay, 1995; Conrad et al., 1992), many issues are still unresolved. First, the majority of studies concentrated on parental own engagement in risk behaviors as well as general parenting practices as precursors of adolescent risk behaviors. Nonetheless, less is know about about the ways parents specifically deal with (adolescent) smoking and drinking at home: anti smoking (or drinking) socialization. In addition, it is important to focus attention on the moderating and mediating effects of parenting, the quality of the parent-child bond and parental own risk behaviors. Although in the field of adolescent substance use, most studies focus on individual adolescents, for the study of the relative impact of parents it is relevant to employ a full family design, in which the effects of parenting on siblings behaviors can be studied. A full-family design also allows the opportunity to compare shared and nonshared peer influences on adolescent substance use.


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Social Sciences | Award Amount: | Year: 2002

Research has demonstrated that smoking is associated with the progression of asthmatic symptoms and the development of COPD. The prevention of smoking among asthmatic adolescents can be expected to significantly reduce asthma severity and the risk of developing COPD. However, in the Netherlands , little is known about (a) the prevalence of asthma among adolescents and (b) smoking behavior of asthmatic adolescents. Furthermore, whether the general predictors of smoking onset in non-asthmatic adolescents are also important in asthmatic adolescents, or whether specific risk factors apply to asthmatic adolescents, are questions that remain unanswered. Insight into these issues is crucial for the development of effective smoking prevention programs for asthmatic adolescents. In particular, because recent international studies showed that tobacco use is similar, or even higher, among asthmatic adolescents than among non-asthmatic adolescents. These findings are alarming especially because of the detrimental health consequences of smoking for asthmatic persons in the short and long run. Therefore, the focus of the present dissertation is on predictors of smoking in asthmatic adolescents. More specifically, this thesis will concentrate on the role of parents and peers in the development of smoking in asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents. The doctoral dissertation will consist of an overview of the literature, five empirical articles, and a discussion section.


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Social Sciences | Award Amount: | Year: 2001

The central question of this research project is whether, and on what conditions, preventive intervention in families at risk can be considered compatible with liberal morality. Liberal morality includes the right of persons to pursue their own convictions and to live their lives the way they think they should, without any state interference, so long as they do not harm others. This would mean that parents have the right to bring up their children in whatever manner they consider appropriate. The state will not intervene unless parents demonstrably fail and harm their children. Preventive intervention, by contrast, implies interference before any harm or patent failure. Is enforced preventive intervention in so-called high-risk families acceptable in the light of the form of liberal morality that is constitutive of the relation between citizens and the state in the Netherlands?


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Social Sciences | Award Amount: | Year: 2008

The goal is to study the effectiveness of visual stimulation in children up till the age of 8 with ocular or cerebral visual impairment with or without intellectual disabilities. Since the commission explicitly stated that the intervention should consist of methods, materials, and visual tasks currently in use by early intervention service providers, one of the targets will be to build consensus on a standard intervention protocol. The commission also explicitly asked for an analyses of the intervention effects on different levels of visual functioning as indicated by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO, 2001). Therefore, the research questions are whether visual stimulation and visual training with young children with visual impairment are:- effective on the level of visual functions (e.g. focussing, visual following)- effective on the level of activities (e.g. task behaviour, visually induced behaviour)- effective on the level of participation, in this case parent - child interaction Samenvatting In March 2006 the InSight foundation invited as to apply for a research grant to study the effectiveness of visual stimulation for children with visual impairment. The invitation mentioned the following commission. Insight invites you to design a study on the effectiveness of visual stimulation in children up till the age of 8 with ocular or cerebral visual impairment with or without intellectual disabilities. The intervention should consist of methods, materials, and visual tasks currently in use by early intervention service providers. The intervention will be implemented according to a standard protocol. Consensus on the content of this standard intervention could be determined by an expert meeting.With the help of several experts in the Netherlands a proposal for two studies has been designed.The first study will concern the effectiveness of visual stimulation in young children in early intervention. The content of the intervention will be based on previous studies of the Institute of Child Health of the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children. This program was chosen because it proved to be effective with children in the UK and it seems to be suitable to current early intervention practices in the Netherlands, mostly because several aspects of the intervention are already in use. The exact content, assessment procedures, and as a consequence the number and kind of dependent variables will be determined in a consensus meeting. Professor Sonksen of the Institute of Child Health has kindly agreed to participate in this meeting. With the help of all the early intervention service providers in the Netherlands, 40 children with visual impairment will be asked to participate in this study. The intervention will take place in an experimental control group design with a pre-test (t0), one intermittent (t1), one post test (t2), and one follow up test (t3). Tests will be performed by the researcher with intervals of four months. Duration of the training will be 8 months. The children will be randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. Children in both the treatment and control group will receive normal early intervention services. Children in the control group will receive general information about visual training but not an individualized visual training program, the latter is only given to the children in the control group.The second study concerns children 4 years and older. With these children training can also be conducted at their schools, which may make it possible to have daily training sessions. The procedures described by Hall Lueck, Dornbusch and Hart (1999), Hall and Bailey (1989) and Hall Lueck (2004) will be used. In this kind of training a topdown approach for choosing intervention effects is used. Critical and relevant tasks given the child s competencies, likes, dislikes and needs, and the parent s and teacher s priorities are chosen. Visual training is part of a la


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Social Sciences | Award Amount: | Year: 2006

None


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Social Sciences | Award Amount: | Year: 2001

None


Penterman B.E.J.M.,GGZ Oost Brabant | Nijman H.L.I.,Altrecht te Utrecht | Nijman H.L.I.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Nijman H.L.I.,Behavioural Science Institute BSI | And 3 more authors.
Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: In an earlier study it was found that aggressive behaviour by patients treated by the psychiatric emergency service could be predicted by the use of a newly developed instrument, the Checklist of Risks/Crisis team (CRC). In this earlier study it was suggested that a replication study, with a larger database, was definitely needed in order to check these findings. AIM: To find out in what circumstances patients (aggressive or non-aggressive) make contact with the crisis team and to ascertain the predictive validity of the CRC. METHODS: During a period offour years (from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009) staff members completed the CRC before paying outreach visits to patients experiencing psychiatric crises in the community. In addition, if patients showed any aggressive behaviour during the visit, this was documented by means of the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R). RESULTS: Our study replicated the earlier finding that the structured clinical risk assessment made on a visual analogue scale (VAS) of the CRC, together with the additional item about whether there were any potentially dangerous persons in the vicinity of the patient, seem to be useful 'predictors' of aggression in the future (with correct classification in respectively 91 and 92%). CONCLUSION: The CRC, detailed monitoring of aggressive incidents by means of the SOAS-R, and the weekly discussions about these incidents all seem to be good instruments for analysing incidents and for increasing the saftty of staff members. The methods and techniques introduced at the beginning of the project have gone hand in hand with the reduction in the number of aggressive acts directed at members of the psychiatric emergency service.


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Social Sciences | Award Amount: | Year: 2002

This research project is a continuation of research that has been conducted at the department of cultural psychology and the psychology of religion, at the University of Nijmegen. We have studied prayer as a psychological process of self-construction and analysed the structure of prayer as a tripartite ritual of need _ action _ effect. Furthermore, in a survey among Dutch youngsters, we distinguished four varieties of prayer: petitionary prayer, religious prayer, psychological prayer and meditational prayer. Ongoing research will include four elements:(a) further research on the structure of prayer and the four varieties of prayer in a representative sample of the Dutch population.(b) further research on the process of praying. Point of departure will be the theory of the Dialogical self of Hermans and Kempen, with an emphasis on self-development, actualisation and self-construction.(c) a cross-cultural validation of an American experiment of the concept of God as a benevolent other. In this new cognitive approach, the concept of God is seen as an embedded cognitive process in our brains. A further validation of the applicability of our model of prayer for different religious groups and denominations.

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