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Calgary, Canada

Kooistra L.,Behavioural Research Unit | Crawford S.,Behavioural Research Unit | Gibbard B.,Developmental Clinic | Ramage B.,University of Calgary | Kaplan B.J.,Behavioural Research Unit
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology | Year: 2010

Aim: The attention and inhibition problems found in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also common in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Attempts to distinguish ADHD from FASDs in terms of these deficits are rare and were pursued in this study. Method: A total of 116 children (47 with ADHD, 31 males, 16 females; 30 with FASDs, 17 males, 13 females; and 39 comparison children, 20 males, 19 females) participated. The mean age was 9 years 4 months (SD 1y 8mo) in the ADHD groups, 8 years 10 months (SD 1y 2mo) in the FASD group, and 9 years 1 month (SD 1y 1mo) in the comparison group. Sustained attention was tested with a slow event rate continuous performance task (CPT). Inhibitory control was tested with both a slow and fast event rate Go/No-Go task. Results: On the CPT task, children with ADHD, combined type (ADHD-C), ADHD, primarily inattentive type (ADHD-PI), and FASDs showed greater declines in task performance as a function of time than comparison children, suggesting sustained attention problems in all clinical groups. Children's Go/No-Go performance was event-rate dependent, with the ADHD-C group being affected in the slow condition and the ADHD-PI and FASD groups having problems with the fast condition. Interpretation: Children with ADHD-C are typically impaired in handling understimulation, while children with FASDs may have problems with overstimulation. The dissociation in responsivity to event rate between groups may have significant differential diagnostic value. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2009. Source

Ten Eycke K.D.,University of Victoria | Ten Eycke K.D.,University of Calgary | Ten Eycke K.D.,Behavioural Research Unit | Muller U.,University of Victoria
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Year: 2014

Previous research suggests that children with autism have deficits in drawing imaginative content. However, these conclusions are largely based on tasks that require children to draw impossible persons, and performance on this task may be limited by social deficits. To determine the generality of the deficit in imagination in children with autism, we asked 25 children with autism (mean age 9;7) and 29 neurotypically developing children (mean age 8;7) to draw an imaginative person and house. Drawings of imaginary houses by children with autism did not differ from those by neurotypically developing controls, but drawings of persons were significantly less imaginative. These findings suggest that the impairment in imagination among children with autism may be specific to social stimuli. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Tough S.C.,University of Calgary | Siever J.E.,Public health Innovation and Decision Support | Benzies K.,University of Calgary | Leew S.,Decision Support Research Team | And 2 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2010

Background: Children at highest risk of developmental problems benefit from early identification and intervention. Investigating factors affecting child development at the time of transition to school may reveal opportunities to tailor early intervention programs for the greatest effectiveness, social benefit and economic gain. The primary objective of this study was to identify child and maternal factors associated with children who screened at risk of developmental problems at school entry.Methods: An existing cohort of 791 mothers who had been followed since early pregnancy was mailed a questionnaire when the children were aged four to six years. The questionnaire included a screening tool for developmental problems, an assessment of the child's social competence, health care utilization and referrals, and maternal factors, including physical health, mental health, social support, parenting morale and sense of competence, and parenting support/resources.Results: Of the 491 mothers (62%) who responded, 15% had children who were screened at high risk of developmental problems. Based on a logistic regression model, independent predictors of screening at high risk for developmental problems at age 5 were male gender (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1), maternal history of abuse at pregnancy (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.4), and poor parenting morale when the child was 3 years old (OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 2.1, 7.3). A child with all of these risk factors had a 35% predicted probability of screening at high risk of developmental problems, which was reduced to 13% if maternal factors were favourable.Conclusions: Risk factors for developmental problems at school entry are related to maternal well being and history of abuse, which can be identified in the prenatal period or when children are preschool age. © 2010 Tough et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Kaminsky L.A.,University of Calgary | Dewey D.,University of Calgary | Dewey D.,Behavioural Research Unit | Dewey D.,Alberta Childrens Hospital Research Institute for Child and Maternal Health
Canadian Journal of Diabetes | Year: 2013

Objective: To examine eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to investigate the associations among social support, self-esteem, health locus of control, eating disorder symptoms and body image. Methods: Forty-six adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 27 healthy comparison adolescents completed questionnaires. Results: No significant differences were identified in eating disorder symptoms and body image between adolescents with type 1 diabetes and healthy comparison adolescents. Regression analyses were completed with the full sample of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and healthy comparison adolescents. Higher levels of social support and being male were associated with a more positive body image, less body dissatisfaction and a lower drive for thinness. A belief by the adolescents that parents or healthcare providers (i.e. external powerful others locus of control) were in control of their health was associated with a more positive body image and less body dissatisfaction. Higher self-esteem was associated with a greater drive for thinness and a higher level of body dissatisfaction. Conclusions: Social support, health locus of control and self-esteem appear to be important correlates of eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with diabetes and their typically developing peers. © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Source

Simpson J.S.A.,University of Calgary | Crawford S.G.,Behavioural Research Unit | Field C.,University of Alberta | Burgess E.,University of Calgary | And 2 more authors.
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Background: Theoretically, consumption of complex, multinutrient formulations of vitamins and minerals should be safe, as most preparations contain primarily the nutrients that have been in the human diet for millennia, and at safe levels as defined by the Dietary Reference Intakes. However, the safety profile of commercial formulae may differ from foods because of the amounts and combinations of nutrients they contain. As these complex formulae are being studied and used clinically with increasing frequency, there is a need for direct evaluation of safety and tolerability.Methods: All known safety and tolerability data collected on one complex nutrient formula was compiled and evaluated.Results: Data were assembled from all the known published and unpublished studies for the complex formula with the largest amount of published research in mental health. Biological safety data from 144 children and adults were available from six sources: there were no occurrences of clinically meaningful negative outcomes/effects or abnormal blood tests that could be attributed to toxicity. Adverse event (AE) information from 157 children and adults was available from six studies employing the current version of this formula, and only minor, transitory reports of headache and nausea emerged. Only one of the studies permitted a direct comparison between micronutrient treatment and medication: none of the 88 pediatric and adult participants had any clinically meaningful abnormal laboratory values, but tolerability data in the group treated with micronutrients revealed significantly fewer AEs and less weight gain.Conclusions: This compilation of safety and tolerability data is reassuring with respect to the broad spectrum approach that employs complex nutrient formulae as a primary treatment. © 2011 Simpson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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