Behavioral science Institute

Sevilla, Spain

Behavioral science Institute

Sevilla, Spain
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PubMed | Nijmegen Institute for Scientists and Practitioners in Addiction, Radboud University Nijmegen and Behavioral Science Institute
Type: | Journal: Research in developmental disabilities | Year: 2016

Adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) are at risk for tobacco and alcohol use, yet little or no prevention programs are available for this group. Prepared on time is an e-learning program based on the attitude - social influence - efficacy model originally developed for fifth and sixth grades of mainstream primary schools. The goals of this study were (1) to examine the lifetime use of tobacco and alcohol among this target group and (2) to gain a first impression of the efficacy of Prepared on time among 12-16-year old students with moderate or mild ID (MMID).Students form three secondary special-needs schools were assigned to the experimental (e-learning) group (n=37) or the control group (n=36). Pre-intervention and follow-up data (3 weeks after completion) were gathered using semi-structured interviews inquiring about substance use among students with MMID and the behavioral determinants of attitude, subjective norm, modelling, intention, and knowledge.The lifetime tobacco use and alcohol consumption rates in our sample were 25% and 59%, respectively. The e-learning program had a positive effect on the influence of modelling of classmates and friends. No significant effects were found on other behavioral determinants and knowledge.A substantial proportion of adolescents with MMID in secondary special-needs schools use tobacco or alcohol. This study showed that an e-learning prevention program can be feasible for adolescents with MMID.

Jauregui-Garrido B.,University Hospital Virgen del Rocio | Jauregui-Lobera I.,Behavioral science Institute | Jauregui-Lobera I.,Pablo De Olavide University
Vascular Health and Risk Management | Year: 2012

Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. "Sudden death" has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals.600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients. © 2012 Jáuregui-Garrido and Ja ́uregui-Lobera, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Magallares A.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Jauregui-Lobera I.,Pablo De Olavide University | Ruiz-Prieto I.,Behavioral science Institute | Angel Santed M.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED)
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2013

Introduction: One of the main problems of patients with eating disorders is their body dissatisfaction. Although these individuals usually are not satisfied with their bodies there are not many investigations that focus on how these patients see people with real weight problems. For this reason, in this study it is analyzed how women with eating disorders see obese people. Methods: A total of 104 participants (35 with anorexia nervosa, 28 with bulimia nervosa, 16 with eating disorder not otherwise specified and 25 controls) were selected to conduct the study. To measure anti-fat attitudes the Spanish version of the Antifat Attitudes Questionnaire was used. To measure if participants had body dissatisfaction it was used the Spanish versions of the Body Shape Questionnaire. Finally, anthropometric measures (height and weight) were taken in order to calculate the BMI (kg/m2), as well as some socio-demographic information. Results: It was found that participants with bulimia nervosa showed scores higher on antifat attitudes than the rest of the participants. Additionally, it was found that this result was influenced by the body dissatisfaction of the participants. Discussion: These results suggest that negative attitudes toward obese people may influence an individual's body image. One way of maintaining a positive body image (especially, the subjective dimension, body satisfaction) is to compare oneself with those perceived as physically inferior (people with weight problems), a strategy that is especially relevant when the mass media insists in depict extreme thin women.

Ruiz-Prieto I.,Behavioral science Institute | Ruiz-Prieto I.,University of Granada | Bolanos-Rios P.,Behavioral science Institute | Jauregui-Lobera I.,Behavioral science Institute | Jauregui-Lobera I.,Pablo De Olavide University
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2013

Introduction: Human eating behaviour is regulated by multiple factors. Anorexia nervosa patients show a restrictive eating pattern while bulimia nervosa patients present bingeing-purging episodes. Although treatments are specially successful in the normalization of body composition, maladaptive eating behaviours tend to persist being a risk factor for relapse and recurrence. Objectives: The aim of this work was to assess the quality of the nutritional choice of eating disorders patients after a year of nutritional education and to assess improvements in choice capacity. Methods: Thirty-one outpatients of an eating disorders unit planned a menu after body composition normalization and repeated this plan each three months during a one-year programme of nutritional education. Results: Patients improved the time spent on the assignment (p < 0.01), Body Mass Index (p < 0.01), their body fat mass (p < 0.01) and the content of energy (p < 0.05), carbohydrates (p < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.05) in their chosen menus. No differences were found on proteins, total fat or fat profile, vitamins or minerals. 12.9% and 3.2% of the patients chose their menu according to the recommendations of caloric and lipid profile, respectively, after a year of nutritional education. Discussion: Although patients improved energy and carbohydrates content of the menus they tended to reduce caloric and fat food choices, which could lead to relapse and recurrence. Specific nutritional education programmes along with the mandatory psychological and psychiatric treatment may be effective. Conclusions: One year of nutritional education combined with psychological and psychiatric treatment improved those factors usually involved in relapse and recurrence, thus contributing to a proper outcome.

Jauregui-Lobera I.,Pablo De Olavide University | Jauregui-Lobera I.,Behavioral science Institute | Bolanos Rios P.,Behavioral science Institute
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2011

Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) in Spanish population (FCQ-SP), its factor structure and internal consistency. In addition, the relationships between the FCQ-SP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the Irrational Food Beliefs Scale (IFBS), and the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3) were analysed in order to explore the validity of the FCQSP. Possible gender differences in the food choice pattern were analysed. Methods: The sample comprised 255 women and 50 men, ranged from 25 to 64 years. In order to get a better interpretation of the results associated with changes based on the age, the participants were grouped in four age intervals (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64). All the participants were relatives of secondary and high school students in three schools of Seville and Cordoba. Results: The factor analysis yields the seven following factors: mood, health and natural content, sensory appeal, weight control, convenience, familiarity, and price. The internal consistency was determined by means of the Cronbach's α coefficients, which ranged from 0.70 to 0.83 for the different components. With regards to the food choice profile, sensory appeal was the most motivating factor to choose food, followed by price and weight control. With respect to gender differences, women showed higher scores than men in all components except in the case of price. Discussion: The FCQ-SP has adequate psychometric properties to be applied to Spanish population, and it is useful to explore the consumers' motivation with regards to food choice.

Jauregui-Lobera I.,Pablo De Olavide University | Jauregui-Lobera I.,Behavioral science Institute | Ezquerra-Cabrera M.,Behavioral science Institute | Carbonero-Carreno R.,IES Atenea | Ruiz-Prieto I.,Behavioral science Institute
Nutrients | Year: 2013

The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Jauregui-Lobera I.,Behavioral science Institute | Jauregui-Lobera I.,Pablo De Olavide University
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2012

Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images). © 2012 Jáuregui-Lobera, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Jauregui-Lobera I.,Pablo De Olavide University | Bolanos-Rios P.,Behavioral science Institute | Ruiz-Prieto I.,Behavioral science Institute
International Journal of General Medicine | Year: 2012

Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought-shape fusion (TSF), specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods. Patients and methods: The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 59 women and seven men). After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire (TSF-Q). Results: Significant correlations were found between TSF-Q and body image-related variables. Those with higher scores in TSF showed higher scores in the BSQ (P < 0.0001), Eating Disorder Inventory - Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT) (P < 0.0001), and Eating Disorder Inventory - Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD) (P < 0.0001). The same patients showed lower scores in the BAS (P < 0.0001). With respect to the psychopathological variables, patients with high TSF obtained higher scores in all SCL-90-R subscales as well as in the STAI. Conclusion: The current study shows the interrelations among different body image-related variables, TSF, and body image quality of life. © 2012 Jáuregui-Lobera et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

PubMed | University Utrecht and Behavioral Science Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association | Year: 2016

Implicit approach reactions to energy-dense snack food can facilitate unhealthy eating in children. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test whether modifying implicit reactions to snack food by means of a go/no-go task can reduce consumption of this food. The effectiveness of this intervention on actual snack intake after exposure to a food or a control advertisement was tested.Children (133; age range = 7-10 years) played an advergame promoting either energy-dense food or nonfood products. Subsequently, children conducted either a go/no-go food task in which the advertised food was consistently associated with no-go cues, or a go/no-go control task in which colored circles were consistently associated with no-go cues. Afterward, they could eat the advertised food and a new food. Candy intake was weighed and caloric intake was determined.Results show that children who performed the go/no-go food task consumed significantly and considerably fewer calories (34%) than the children who carried out the control task. No main effect of type of advertisement was found. Furthermore, the effect of the go/no-go food task was similar after each type of advertisement, similar for advertised and new foods, and was significant for both girls and boys.Targeting implicit reactions to high-energy snacks proved effective in decreasing intake of snacks in children. Furthermore, the previously reported stimulating effect of food promoting advergames on intake may disappear when a short cognitive task is presented directly after the game. Future work should evaluate the clinical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record

PubMed | DLCB Laboratory, Behavioral science Institute and Pablo De Olavide University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrients | Year: 2015

Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 2.60 mol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 99.73 mol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system.

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