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Cowens-Alvarado R.,American Cancer Society | Sharpe K.,American Cancer Society | Pratt-Chapman M.,George Washington University | Willis A.,George Washington University | And 5 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2013

The National Cancer Survivorship Resource Center (The Survivorship Center) began in 2010 as a collaboration between the American Cancer Society and the George Washington University Cancer Institute and was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Survivorship Center aims to improve the overall health and quality of life of posttreatment cancer survivors. One key to addressing the needs of this ever-growing population is to develop clinical follow-up care guidelines that emphasize not only the importance of surveillance for cancer recurrence, but also address the assessment and management of the physical and psychosocial long-term and late effects that may result from having cancer and undergoing cancer treatment as well as highlight the importance of healthy behaviors that can reduce the risk of cancer recurrence, second primary cancers, and other chronic diseases. Currently, The Survivorship Center is coordinating the work of experts in oncology, primary care, and other health care professions to develop follow-up care guidelines for 10 priority cancer sites. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc. Source

Desantis C.E.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Lin C.C.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Mariotto A.B.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Siegel R.L.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | And 5 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2014

The number of cancer survivors continues to increase due to the aging and growth of the population and improvements in early detection and treatment. In order for the public health community to better serve these survivors, the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute collaborated to estimate the number of current and future cancer survivors using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program registries. In addition, current treatment patterns for the most common cancer types are described based on information in the National Cancer Data Base and the SEER and SEER-Medicare linked databases; treatment-related side effects are also briefly described. Nearly 14.5 million Americans with a history of cancer were alive on January 1, 2014; by January 1, 2024, that number will increase to nearly 19 million. The 3 most common prevalent cancers among males are prostate cancer (43%), colorectal cancer (9%), and melanoma (8%), and those among females are cancers of the breast (41%), uterine corpus (8%), and colon and rectum (8%). The age distribution of survivors varies substantially by cancer type. For example, the majority of prostate cancer survivors (62%) are aged 70 years or older, whereas less than one-third (32%) of melanoma survivors are in this older age group. It is important for clinicians to understand the unique medical and psychosocial needs of cancer survivors and to proactively assess and manage these issues. There are a growing number of resources that can assist patients, caregivers, and health care providers in navigating the various phases of cancer survivorship. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;64:252-271. © 2014 American Cancer Society. © 2014 American Cancer Society. Source

Pachankis J.E.,Yeshiva University | Lee Westmaas J.,Behavioral Research, Inc. | Dougherty L.R.,University of Maryland University College
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology | Year: 2011

Objective: The prevalence of smoking among gay men is considerably higher than in the general population. To investigate possible causes of this health risk disparity, this study used multilevel modeling of daily diary data to examine the temporal relationship between smoking and both sexual orientation concealment and masculine gender role variables. Method: Gay (n = 136) and heterosexual (n = 56) university students (mean age = 20.56, SD = 2.13) completed measures of boyhood and current gender nonconformity, as well as daily measures of smoking, negative affect, and masculinity self-consciousness across 9 days. Gay participants additionally indicated the extent to which they concealed their sexual orientation each day. Results: The same percentage of gay (17.7; n = 24) and heterosexual (17.9 n = 10) participants smoked over the course of the study. Gay men who smoked, however, smoked on more days across the study, t = 2.20, p < .05. Boyhood gender nonconformity and current masculinity significantly predicted the average odds of smoking for all participants. Daily masculinity self-consciousness also predicted the odds of smoking for all participants, although it predicted those odds more strongly for heterosexual men (b = 1.00, p < .001) than for gay men (b = .31, p = .06). Gay participants' attempts to conceal their sexual orientation on a given day positively predicted their likelihood of smoking that day. Conclusions: Results suggest the need to consider the role of gender nonconformity, masculinity self-consciousness, and sexual orientation stress in future investigations of smoking among young men. © 2011 American Psychological Association. Source

Stein K.,Behavioral Research, Inc. | Mattioli V.,Italian National Cancer Institute
Cancer | Year: 2013

The authors describe the rationale and background of the present supplement to Cancer intended to stimulate a dialogue among researchers from Europe and North America regarding important issues faced by cancer survivors. Through jointly written articles addressing various aspects of cancer survivorship, each manuscript reports on the similarities, disparities, and problems viewed from the point of view of each author's respective continent. The supplement is meant to create a springboard for increased collaboration and aid in the development of a shared care model to improve the quality of cancer care, both during and after the completion of primary treatment. We hope that this effort may represent a new model of international cooperation, which is fruitful not only for the field of scientific research but also for identifying and sharing new approaches to the care and management of cancer survivorship issues, ultimately bringing improvements to quality of life of the growing population of cancer survivors. © 2013 American Cancer Society. Source

McLean K.,City University of New York | McLean K.,Behavioral Research, Inc.
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2012

This paper explores the position of needle exchange programmes (NEPs) in the " geography of survival" in the South Bronx neighbourhood of New York City. Stemming the spread of HIV through the provision of sterile injecting equipment, needle exchange promotes the survival of injection drug users (IDUs) in the starkest sense; yet NEPs also attract a diverse population of service users whose attendance is not necessarily related to drugs. This paper locates NEPs among a larger constellation of social services accessed by residents of poor neighbourhoods, including injection drug users, the homeless, the hungry, and those in need of medical services or just safe space. Drawing on ethnographic and interview data from a needle exchange in the South Bronx, I describe how both IDUs and others employed the organisation to make ends meet, elaborating four " off-label" usages of needle exchange: as a place to obtain basic necessities, as a source of income, as a safe space, and as a site of social contact. As harm reduction in the United States moves towards an increasingly clinical model of care, this paper considers these latent functions of needle exchange within the context of a larger struggle over the content and meaning of harm reduction services. By themselves, NEPs are clearly an unsatisfactory solution to the economic and political circumstances that drive a variety of individuals through their doors; yet, in a country that lacks a comprehensive welfare system, needle exchange arguably represents an important thread within a social safety net that is being woven from the ground up. This study may be used to argue for a (re)expanded mission for harm reduction in the United States, in the face of constant moves to narrow its mandate and reduce its budget. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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