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Westby R.P.,Emory University | Westby R.P.,ICF International | Berg C.J.,Emory University | Leach C.,Behavioral Research Center
Quality of Life Research | Year: 2016

Purpose: We examined the main and interactive effects of race, BMI, and social support on physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among male and female cancer survivors using the stress and coping theory to inform findings. Methods: HRQoL issues among 1768 cancer survivors were examined using the American Cancer Society’s cross-sectional Study of Cancer Survivors II. Two-step multiple linear regressions were conducted to assess the physical and mental HRQoL of male and female cancer survivors, respectively. Results: The average age of participants was 67.36 (SD = 11.51); the majority were female (53.3 %; n = 941) and non-Hispanic White (85.9 %; n = 1517). The average BMI measurement for participants was 28.33 (SD = 5.90), with 41.3 % (n = 729) overweight and 30.3 % (n = 535) obese. Higher BMI was significantly associated with lower physical HRQoL across gender, while social support had significant main effects on physical and mental HRQoL across gender. Race moderated the relationship between social support and physical HRQoL among female cancer survivors and between BMI and mental HRQoL for both genders. Conclusions: The results of this study contribute a unique gender- and racial-specific perspective to cancer survivorship research. While the buffering hypothesis of the stress and coping theory was not supported, the main effects of BMI and social support on HRQoL were different across gender and race. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Miller K.D.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Siegel R.L.,Strategic Health Services | Lin C.C.,Health Services Research | Mariotto A.B.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 5 more authors.
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2016

The number of cancer survivors continues to increase because of both advances in early detection and treatment and the aging and growth of the population. For the public health community to better serve these survivors, the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute collaborate to estimate the number of current and future cancer survivors using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries. In addition, current treatment patterns for the most prevalent cancer types are presented based on information in the National Cancer Data Base and treatment-related side effects are briefly described. More than 15.5 million Americans with a history of cancer were alive on January 1, 2016, and this number is projected to reach more than 20 million by January 1, 2026. The 3 most prevalent cancers are prostate (3,306,760), colon and rectum (724,690), and melanoma (614,460) among males and breast (3,560,570), uterine corpus (757,190), and colon and rectum (727,350) among females. More than one-half (56%) of survivors were diagnosed within the past 10 years, and almost one-half (47%) are aged 70 years or older. People with a history of cancer have unique medical and psychosocial needs that require proactive assessment and management by primary care providers. Although there are a growing number of tools that can assist patients, caregivers, and clinicians in navigating the various phases of cancer survivorship, further evidence-based resources are needed to optimize care. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:271-289. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society, Inc.

Westmaas J.L.,Behavioral Research Center | Alcaraz K.I.,Behavioral Research Center | Berg C.J.,Emory University | Stein K.D.,Behavioral Research Center
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Smoking is detrimental to recovery and survival from cancer, but many cancer survivors continue to smoke. Information is lacking on smoking patterns of survivors many years after diagnosis and correlates of smoking status and patterns, likelihood of quitting, and intentions to quit.Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among survivors of 10 cancers recruited by stratified random sampling from cancer registries in a nationwide, longitudinal, quality-of-life study (n = 2, 938).Results: Approximately 9 years after diagnosis, 9.3% of all survivors were current (past 30-day) smokers. Smoking prevalence was highest among survivors of bladder (17.2%), lung (14.9%), and ovarian (11.6%) cancers. Most current smokers (83%) smoked daily, averaging 14.7 cigarettes per day (cpd). Forty percent of daily smokers smoked more than 15 cpd. Nondaily smokers smoked a mean of 10.9 days in the last 30 days and averaged 5.7 cpd on smoking days. Current smoking was associated with younger age, lower education and income, and greater alcohol consumption. Quitting after diagnosis was associated with having a smoking-related cancer. Roughly, a third of current smokers intended to quit, 40% within the nextmonth. The odds of intending to quit were lower if survivors weremarried, older, or smokedmore.Conclusions: This population-based study indicated that smoking can persist long after initial diagnosis and at high levels and identified characteristics associated with quitting and intentions to quit.Impact: Findings can be used to identify survivors most at risk for continued smoking and to inform tailoring of cessation treatments for survivors. © 2014 AACR.

Smith T.G.,Behavioral Research Center | Troeschel A.N.,Behavioral Research Center | Arora N.K.,Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute | Lipscomb J.,Winship Cancer InstituteEmory UniversityAtlanta | And 5 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2015

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measure quality of life, symptoms, patient functioning, and patient perceptions of care; they are essential for gaining a full understanding of cancer care and the impact of cancer on people's lives. Repeatedly captured facility-level and/or population-level PROs (PRO surveillance) could play an important role in quality monitoring and improvement, benchmarking, advocacy, policy making, and research. This article describes the rationale for PRO surveillance and the methods of the Patient Reported Outcomes Symptoms and Side Effects Study (PROSSES), which is the first PRO study to use the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer's Rapid Quality Reporting System to identify patients and manage study data flow. The American Cancer Society, the National Cancer Institute, the Commission on Cancer, and RTI International collaborated on PROSSES. PROSSES was conducted at 17 cancer programs that participated in the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program among patients diagnosed with locoregional breast or colon cancer. The methods piloted in PROSSES were successful as demonstrated by high eligibility (93%) and response (61%) rates. Differences in clinical and demographic characteristics between respondents and nonrespondents were mostly negligible, with the exception that non-white individuals were somewhat less likely to respond. These methods were consistent across cancer centers and reproducible over time. If repeated and expanded, they could provide PRO surveillance data from patients with cancer on a national scale. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

Best A.L.,ing Community Center | Alcaraz K.I.,Behavioral Research Center | McQueen A.,University of Washington | Cooper D.L.,Behavioral Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Psycho-Oncology | Year: 2015

Objective African American (AA) cancer survivors report poorer self-rated health (SRH) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Spirituality is often linked to positive health outcomes, with AAs reporting greater levels of spirituality. This study examined the potential mediating role of cancer-related problems in the relationship between spirituality and SRH among AA cancer survivors compared to non-African American (non-AA) survivors. Methods We analyzed data on 9006 adult cancer survivors from the American Cancer Society's Study of Cancer Survivors-II. Preliminary analyses compared characteristics of AAs and non-AAs and identified significant covariates of SRH. We tested a path model using multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM), and then examined race as a moderator. Results Of the three domains of spirituality assessed, AAs had higher levels of peace (p < .001) and faith (p < .001), but not meaning, compared to non-AAs; and of four domains of cancer-related problems assessed, AAs had greater physical distress (p < .001), emotional distress (p < .001), and employment/finance problems (p < .001), but not fear of recurrence. In SEM analyses adjusting for number of comorbidities and income, race moderated the impact of spirituality and cancer-related problems on SRH. Specifically, spirituality had significantly stronger associations with cancer-related problems among AAs than non-AAs. Spirituality was positively associated with all four domains of cancer-related problems, but only physical distress was associated with SRH among AAs. Conclusions The negative effects of physical distress may attenuate the positive effects of spirituality on AA's SRH. Future studies should consider racial/ethnic differences in the determinants and conceptualization of SRH, which is a known predictor of survival. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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